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HIT 226 Ch. 3

Principles of Disease

new growth neoplasm
a swelling or a neoplasm tumor
Not all neoplasms form tumors. True
a malignant disease of the bone marrow that causes an increase in white blood cell production and might not form distinctive tumor leukemia
a large tumor or swelling filled with blood; commonly called a bruise or contusion hematoma
1) Appearance and growth pattern 2) Tissue of origin, or type of body tissue from which they grow 2 ways to classify neoplasms
neoplasms that are confined to a local area and do not spread benign
exhibit characteristics of invasion and metastasis malignant
the spreading of the neoplasm into local or surrounding tissue invasion
the spread of the neoplasm to distant sites metastasis
the most common type of malignant neoplasm arising from epithelial tissue carcinoma
a malignant neoplasm arising from connective tissue sarcoma
Neoplasms are classified or named according to the tissue from which they grow along with the suffix "oma" for tumor. True
A benign tumor of epithelial tissue such as a gland would be adenoma True
If it is a malignant neoplasm, the name becomes adenocarcinoma. True
malignant neoplasms of lymphatic and blood-forming organs and lymphatic tissues lymphomas
glandular epithelium benign - adenoma malignant - adenocarcinoma
squamous epithelium benign - epithelioma malignant - squamous cell carcinoma
adipose benign - lipoma malignant - liposarcoma
cartilage benign - chondroma malignant - chondrosarcoma
bone benign - osteoma malignant - osteosarcoma
glial only malignant - glioma
blood only malignant - leukemia
the process of individual specialization differentiation
vessel growth or new growth of blood vessels angiogenesis
an individual begins to lose weight and appear thin, frail, and weak cachexia
overgrowth of cells that cause an increase in the size of the tissue hyperplasia
Hyperplasia usually occurs in response to a stimulus, and the growth stops when the stimulus stops True
Neoplasms are not only an increase in cell number, but new or different in their appearance from their cell of origin, or mother True
cancer-causing agent or substance carcinogen
the process of using light, short waves such as ultraviolet or x-ray radiation
abnormal hyperplasia dysplasia
atypical cells are "just sitting" in the epithelial layer of the tissue and have not broken through the basement membrane and invaded the surrounding tissue carcinoma in situ
Sarcomas do not use the lymphatic system as readily as carcinomas. True
determines the degree of differentiation of the neoplasm grading
considers the degree of spread staging
undifferentiated neoplastic
The higher the degree of differentiation, the better the prognosis. True
removing a small piece of tissue for microscopic examination biopsy
Grading and staging are two predictors of prognosis; staging is the better indicator. True
cancer development cardinogenesis
a cellular adaptation in which the cell changes to another type of cell metaplasia
a test to screen for cervical cancer pap test
Change in bowel or bladder habits A sore that does not heal Unusual bleeding or discharge Thickening or lump in breast Indigestion or difficulty swallowing Obvious change in a wart or mole Nagging cough or hoarseness CAUTION
examination of cells cytology
a technique that enables the pathologist to make a rapid determination of the tumor condition: benign or malignant frozen section
using pharmacologic therapy in the treatment of cancer chemotherapy
treatment aimed and curing curative
treatment to relieve symptoms palliative
Created by: adale3171