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HIT 226 Ch. 2

Principles of Disease

Heredity Trauma Inflammation and infection Hyperplasias and neoplasms Nutritional imbalance Immunity 6 Categories of disease
Hereditary diseases that are present at birth, even if not apparent Congenital
Single gene abnormality Abnormality of several genes Abnormality of a chromosome Classifications of hereditary diseases
the leading cause of death in children and young adults trauma
the most frequent cause of serious injury overall motor vehicle accidents (MVA's)
prioritizing of care triage
a protective immune response that is triggered by any type of injury or irritant inflammation
the invasion of microorganisms into tissue that causes cell or tissue injury infection
excessive growth; an overgrowth in response to some type of stimulus hyperplasia
new growth neoplasm
neoplasms; swelling tumor
the study of tumors or cancer oncology
usually benign tumor arising from glandular epithelial tissue adenoma
malignant tumor of epithelial tissue carcinoma
benign encapsulated tumor of connective tissue fibroma
malignant tumor of neurological cells glioma
benign fatty tumor lipomas
malignant tumor of the skin melanoma
malignant tumor arising from connective tissue such as muscle or bone sarcoma
have a limited growth and are encapsulated thus easily removed, and are not deadly benign
enclosed in a capsule encapsulated
grow uncontrollably; have finger-like projections into surrounding tissue, making removal very difficult; and are usually deadly malignant
any malignant tumor cancer
move metastasize
move from site of origin to a secondary site in the body metastatic
any individual who has an ill, thin, wasted appearance cachexia
to administer by injection parenteral
providing the total nutrition needed by giving nutritive liquid through a venous route total parenteral nutrition (TPN)
small intestine route; tube feeding enteral
Inflammatory response Antigen-antibody reaction 2 ways the immune system protects the body
substances that cause the body some type of harm antigens
immune bodies; proteins that the body produces to react to the antigen and render it harmless antibodies
environmental substance that causes a reaction allergen
house dust, grass, pets, perfumes, or insect bites allergy
the immune response attacks itself autoimmunity
the immune response is unable to defend the body due to a decrease or absence of leukocytes, primarily lymphocytes immunodeficiency
Persons with immunodeficiency are usually asymptomatic except for recurrent infections True
an immunodeficiency disease AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)
the body's immune system recognizes the organ as foreign and attacks it organ rejection
diseases related to aging degenerative
not enough oxygen hypoxia
no oxygen anoxia
without growth; a decrease in cell size, which leads to a decrease in the size of the tissue and organ atrophy
excessive growth; an increase in the size of the cell leading to an increase in tissue and organ size hypertrophy
increased growth; an increase in cell number that is commonly due to hormonal stimulation hyperplasia
bad or difficult growth; an alteration in size, shape, and organization of cells dysplasia
changed growth; a cellular adaptation in which the cell changes to another type of cell metaplasia
new growth; the development of a new type of cell with an uncontrolled growth pattern neoplasia
cell hypoxia caused by decreased blood flow ischemia
cellular death necrosis
the area of dead cells infarct
when saprophytic bacteria become involved in the necrotic tissue the tissue is described as having gangrene
Gangrene can be wet, dry, or gas, depending on the appearance of the necrotic tissue True
disability; the state of being diseased morbidity
Lack of response to stimuli Loss of all reflexes Absence of respirations or breathing effort Lack of brain activity as shown by an electroencephalogram (EEG) Criteria for determining brain death
Created by: adale3171