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NASM CPT- Ch.3 2013

The Cardiorespiratory System

QuestionAnswer
What is the Cardiovascular system? Heart, blood vessels, and blood
What is the respiratory system? Trachea, Bronchi, Alveoli, and the lungs.
What is the cardiorespiratory system? A system of the body composed of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
What is the heart? A hollow muscular organ that pumps a circulation of blood through the body by means of rhythmic contraction.
What is the mediastinum? The space in the chest between the lungs that contains all the internal organs of the chest except the lungs
What is the Sinoatrial Node (SA) A specialied area of cardiac tissue, located in the right atrium of the heart, which initiates the electrical impulses that determine the heart rate; often termed the pacemaker for the heart.
What are the 3 types of muscle? cardiac, smooth and striated
What is the typical resting heart rate? Between 70 and 80 beats for second.
What is referred to as the pacemaker of the heart? SA node
What is the Atrioventricular Node (AV) A small mass of specialized cardiac muscle fibers located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart, that receives heartbeat impulses from the sinoatrial node and directs them to the walls of the ventricles.
What is the atrium? The top or superior chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into the ventricles.
What are the ventricles? The inferior of lower chambers of the heart that receives blood from its corresponding atrium and in turn forces blood into the arteries.
Which Ventricle pumps to the lungs? Right - received deoxygenated blood from the right atrium and then pumps it to the lungs to be saturated with incoming oxygen.
Which ventricle pumps to the body? Left - receives the oxygenated blood from the left atrium and proceeds to pump it to the entire body.
What is the stroke volume? the amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction
What is the heart rate? Rate at which the heart pumps Blood
Cardiac Output The amount of work the heart is doing at any given time.
What is the fluid that circulates in the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins, carries nutrients and oxygen to all parts of the body, and also rids the body of waste products? Blood
What are the three types of blood cells? Red (carry oxygen), White (help fight infection), and platelets (help with clotting)
What are the 3 support mechanisms of blood? Transporation of oxygen and tissues, waste from tissues, hormones to organs, carries heat Regulates body temperature, Protects the body from excessive bleeding by clotting, carries specialized immune cells to help fight disease and sickness.
What is the network of hollow tubes that circulate blood throughout the body? Blood Vessels
What is the name of the blood vessel that transports blood away from the heart? Artery
What is the name of the blood vessel that transports blood to the heart? Veins
What are Capilleries? The smallest blood vessels and the site of exchange of chemicals and water between the blood and the tissues.
What are Arterioles? Small terminal branches of an artery, which end in capilleries.
What is the name of the largest artery in the body Aorta
What are very small veins that connect capillaries to the larger veins? Venules
What is the system of organs that collects oxygen from the external environment and transports it to the bloodstream. Respiratory System
What is the respiratory pump? skeletal structures and soft tissues that work together to allow proper respiratory mechanics to occur and help pump blood back to the heart during inspiration.
What is inspiration? The process of actively contracting the inspiratory muscles to move air into the body.
What is Expiration? The process of actively or passively relaxing the inspiratory muscles to move air out of the body.
What is diffusion? The process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body.
What is the use of oxygen in the body called? Oxygen uptake or oxygen consumption
What is the Fick equation and why important? Oxygen consumption (VO2) is a product of cardiac output (Q or HR X SV), time the arterial-venous difference (difference in the O2 content between the blood in the arteries and blood in the veins). It shows us that heart rate effects O2 consumption.
What is the maximal Oxygen Consumption (Vo2 max)? The highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion.