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Focus on Health # 3

Chapters 9, 10, 11 Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Atherosclerosis Build up of plaque on the inner walls of arteries.
Cardiac muscle Specialized muscle tissue that forms the middle (muscular) layer of the heart wall.
cerebrovascular occlusions Blockages to arteries supplying blood to the cerebral cortex of the brain; stroke.
cardiovascular Pertaining to the heart (cardio)and blood vessels (vascular).
Congestive heart failure Inability of the heart to pump out all the blood that returns to it.
Coronary arteries Vessels that supply oxygenated blood to heart muscle tissues.
Coronary artery bypass Surgery designed to improve blood flow to the heart by providing new routes for the blood to flow around blockage.
Diastolic pressure Blood pressure against blood vessel walls when the heart relaxes.
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) Lipoprotein that transports cholesterol from the bloodstream to the liver where it is removed from the body. (Good cholesterol).
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) lipoprotein that transport cholesterol in the bloodstream; high levels are associated to heart disease.
Heart murmur An atypical sound that suggests a backwashing of blood into a chamber of the heart from which it has just left.
Myocardial infarction Heart attack; the death of part of the heart muscle as a result of a blockage in one of the coronary arteries.
Peripheral artery disease Atherosclerotic blockages that occur in arteries that supply blood to the arms and legs.
Rheumatic heart disease Chronic damage to the heart resulting from a streptococcal infection within the heart.
Stent A device inserted inside a coronary artery during a percutaneous coronary intervention to prevent the artery from narrowing at that site.
Systolic pressure Blood pressure against blood vessel walls when the heart contracts.
Transient ischemic attack Strokelike symptoms caused by temporary spasm of cerebral blood vessels.
Alzheimer's disease Gradual memory loss, confusion, and loss of reasoning, gradually leading to brain degeneration and death.
Autoimmune An immune response against the tissues of a person's own body.
Benign Noncancerous; localized nonmalignant tumors contained within a fibrous membrane.
Fistula An open pathway between the gastrointestinal wall and other internal organs often caused by Crohn's disease.
Gail Score A numerical expression of the risk of developing invasive breast cancer.
Gait Pattern of walking.
Genetic Predisposition An inherited tendency to develop a disease if necessary environmental factors exist.
Insulin A pancreatic hormone required by the body for the effective metabolism of glucose (blood sugar).
Metastasis The spread of cancerous cells from their site of origin to other areas of the body.
Oncogenes Faulty regulatory genes that are believed to activate the development of cancer.
Prophylactic mastectomy Surgical removal of the breasts to prevent breast cancer in women who are at high risk of developing the disease.
Prophylactic oophorectomy Surgical removal of the ovaries to prevent ovarian cancer in women at high risk of developing the disease.
proto-oncogenes Normal regulatory genes that may become oncogenes.
Regulatory genes Genes that control cell specialization, replication, DNA repair, and tumor suppression.
Sclerotic changes Thickening or hardening of tissues.
Sigmoidoscopy Examination of the lowest section of the large intestine using a short, flexible fiber-optic scope.
Tumor Mass of cells; may be cancerous (malignant) or noncancerous (benign).
Acquired immunity A form of immunity resulting from exposure to foreign protein (AI)
Acute rhinitis The common cold; the sudden onset of nasal inflammation.
Antibodies Chemical compounds produced by the body's immune system to destroy antigens and their toxins.
Artificially acquired immunity A type of acquired immunity resulting from the body's response to pathogens introduced into the body through immunizations.
Cell-mediated immunity Immunity provided principally by the immune system's T cells, both working alone and in combination with highly specialized B cells; also called T cell-mediated immunity.
Chlamydia The most prevalent sexually transmitted disease; cause by nongonococcal bacterium.
Chronic fatique syndrome An illness that causes severe exhaustion, fatique, aches, and depression; mostly affects middle aged women.
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Sexually transmitted viruses, some of which are capable of causing precancerous changes in the cervix; also may cause genital warts.
Humoral immunity Immunity responsible for production of antibodies; also called B cell-mediated immunity.
Lyme disease A bacterial infection transmitted by deer ticks.
Mononucleosis A viral infection characterized by weakness, fatigue, swollen glands, sore throat, and lowgrade fever.
Naturally acquired immunity A type of immunity resulting from the body's response to naturally occurring pathogens.
Pandemic An epidemic that has crossed national boundaries, thus achieving regional or international status (HIV/AIDS is a pandemic).
Passively acquired immunity A temporary immunity achieved by providing antibodies to a person exposed to a particular pathogen.
Pathogen A disease causing agent.
Peritonitis Inflammation of the peritoneum, or lining of the abdominopelvic cavity
Shingles Painful fluid-filled skin eruptions along underlying sensory nerve pathways-due to reactivation of the chicken pox virus.
Toxic shock syndrome A potentially fatal condition caused by the proliferation of certain bacteria in the vagina that enter the general blood circulation.
Virulent Capable of causing disease.
Created by: smmck