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Soc Theory Ch10

Contemporary Sociological Theory and Its Classical Roots Ch 10

What were some of the defining characteristics of modernization theory that have been critiqued? Western bias, pre-eminence accorded to developments in the West, the idea that the rest of the world had little choice but to become increasingly like the West.
There is a tendency to examine what in virtually all globalization theories? Transnational processes that not only flow in many different directions, but are also autonomous and independent of any single nation or area of the world.
What is a key difference in analyzing globalization from cultural, economic, political, and/or institutional perspectives? Whether there is increasing homogeneity or heterogeneity.
The globalization of culture can be seen as what extremes? The transnational expansion of common codes and practices, or as a process in which many global and local cultural inputs interact to create a blend, leading to a variety of cultural hybrids.
The trend toward homogeneity can be seen as what? Cultural imperialism.
Roland Robertson opposes the idea of cultural imperialism through his idea of what? Glocalization
What is the concept in which the global is seen as interacting with the local to produce something distinctive? Glocalization
Theorists who focus on economic factors generally see globalization as what? The spread of the market economy throughout many different regions of the world.
What organizations have roles in exacerbating, rather than resolving, global economic crises through homogenizing approaches that work to the advantage of the wealthy nations and to the detriment of poor ones? the World Bank, the Wordl Trade Organization (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF)
The gap between rich and poor has done what as a result of globalization? Decreased Increased Remained the same Increased
Where is heterogeneity acknowledged to exist by those focusing on the homogeneity of the global economy? At the margins
Those who emphasize the heterogeneity of the global economy argue what about global and local markets? The interaction of the global market with local markets leading to the creation of unique markets that integrate the demands of the global market with the realities of the local market.
What is the influence of a particular culture on a wide array of other cultures? Cultural imperialism
What is a transplanetary process or set of processes involving growing multidirectional flows of increasingly liquid people, objects, places, and information and the structures they encounter and create that are barriers to, or expedite, those flows. Globalization
TRUE or FALSE: It could be argued that globalization is the most important change in human history? TRUE
Globalization is particularly reflected in the domains of social relationship and structures that are what? Widely dispersed geographically
Political/institutional orientations toward globalization focus on the worldwide spread of what? Models of the nation-state and the emergence of similar forms of governance throughout the globe - the growth of a more-or-less single model of governance around the world.
Some see the growth of transnational institutions and organizations as greatly doing 1)what 2)to what 3)to do what? 1)Diminishing the power 2) Nation state and other, more local, social structures 3) Make a difference in people's lives
What is the term for Benjamin Barber's thinking on the growth of a single political orientation that is increasingly pervasive throughout the world? McWorld
As an alternative perspective to McWorld, Barber articulates the idea of what? Jihad
What is the localized, ethnic, and reactionary political forces (including "rogue states") that involve an intensification of nationalism and that lead to greater political heterogeneity throughout the world? Jihad
The use of the internet to attract supporters is an example of what? McWorld
The use of traditional ideas and rhetoric is an example of what? Jihad
What is the term that is related to globalization and involves the interconnection of individuals and social groups across the borders of specific nation-states? Transnationalism
What is the term that refers to the development of communities, identities, and relationships that are not limited to a single nation-state? Transnationality
What term is most often used in thinking about immigrants who move from one country to another, but who continue to be involved in various ways with the country from which they came? Transnationalism
According to Ritzer, labor unions are better thought of in terms of: 1)Transnational 2)Global Transnational
Who is the major figure associated with the idea of civil society? Alexis de Tocqueville
Tocqueville lauded the early American propensity to form a wide range of 1)what that were not 2)what in nature and orientation? 1)Associations 2)Political
What allows people to interact with one another and to develop, renew, and enlarge feelings, ideas, emotions, and understandings? Civil associations
Through what means did the United States often conquer the world? Uncivilized, violent - such as colonialism, imperialism
What are some of the elements of civil society that the United States played a major role in creating? Free press, written constitutions, religious tolerance, human rights
Name some examples of the robust civil society already in existence by the 19th and early 20th centuries? Peace societies, cooperatives, workers movements
What set back civil society? The 2 world wars
When did modern civil society take shape and expand dramatically? After World War II
To what is the increasingly global nature of civil society attributed by Ritzer? Improved travel and communication making linkages among various civil society groups throughout the world possible
What was of central importance to civil society in the 1970s and 1980s? Opposition to military dictatorship and efforts to find an autonomous and self-organizing base outside of the sate in order to oppose the military.
What was of great importance to civil society in the 1990s? Global activists who came together in an effort to deal with land mines, human rights, climate change, and HIV/AIDS.
What is the process through which individuals deal with political and economic authorities in a wide variety of ways? Civil society
What are some of the avenues through which people can analyze and criticize their political and economic institutions in civil society? Voluntary associations, social movements, political parties, and labor unions
TRUE or FALSE: Civil society involves only the actions that take place within voluntary associations, social movements, political parties, and labor unions? FALSE - it also involves the setting
An active, vital, and powerful civil society can act as a counterbalance to what? The polity and economy
Global civil society is a nongovernmental form of society composed of interlinked social processes oriented to what? Civility (nonviolence), being pluralistic (including he strong potential to reduce conflict), and being global
What is an example of global flows of resources? Money, information, popular culture
What is an example of global flows of threats? Pollution, drugs, sex trafficking
CARE, Worldwide Fund for Nature, Greenpeace, Amnesty International, Friends of the Earth, Medecins San Frontieres, and Oxfam are examples of what? International Nongovernmental Organizations (INGOs)
Anthony Giddens sees a close link between globalization and the rise of what? Manufactured risk
Giddens holds out some hope for the problems created by the juggernaut of modernity through what? Democracy, especially international and transnational forms such as the European Union
What does Giddens say that globalization does in producing new areas that may cut across nations? Squeeze sideways
TRUE or FALSE: Giddens says that only the West has a role in globalization, and that nations outside the West play no role in decentralization? FALSE - The West is emphasized, but Giddens recognizes it is a 2-way process with nations outside the West playing an increasingly large role in decentralization.
What is a key clash taking place at the global level today? That between fundamentalism and cosmopolitanism
Who sees the emergence of a global cosmopolitan society? Giddens
What is the main force in opposition to a global cosmopolitan society? Traditionalism
For what two reasons does Giddens think that fundamentalism is problematic? It is at odds with cosmopolitanism. It is linked to violence.
What does Giddens argue fundamentalism uses from globalization to further its ends against globalization? Mass media
What is the monocausal and unilinear view that the world is dominated by economics and that we are witnessing the emergence of the hegemony of the capitalist world market and the neoliberal ideology that underpins it? Globalism
What is the view that closed spaces, especially those associated with nations, are growing increasingly illusory in the era of globalization? Globality
According to globalism, the economic dimension is evolving in a linear direction of ever-increasing dependence on what? The world market
TRUE or FALSE - Ulrich Beck sees the world in terms of a single direction and a single dimension? FALSE
Beck sees transnational processes as rendering borders what? Porous, if not increasingly irrelevant
Beck distinguishes between what 2 concepts? Globalism and globality
Globality is new for what 3 reasons? Its influence over geographic space is far more extensive than ever before. Is influence over time is far more stable. There is far greater density to its various elements including transnational relationship and networks.
Name the first 3 things Beck lists as being distinctive about globality in comparison to earlier manifestations of transnationality? Everyday life & interaction across national borders are being profoundly affected. There is a self-perception of this transnationality in such realms as the mass media, consumption & tourism. Community, labor & capital are increasingly placeless.
Name the second 2 things Beck lists as being distinctive about globality in comparison to earlier manifestations of transnationality? There is a growing awareness of global ecological dangers & actions to be taken to deal with them. There is an increasing perception of transcultural others in our lives.
Name the last 2 things Beck lists as being distinctive about globality in comparison to earlier manifestations of transnationality? Global culture industries circulate at unprecedented levels. There is an increase in the number and strength of transnational agreements, actors and institutions.
Beck argues that the inability to reverse globality is associated with what? Second modernity
The central premise of first modernity was what? That we live in self-enclosed nation-states.
What does Beck call the premise of first-modernity that we live in self-enclosed nation-states? Container theory
Beck hopes that globality and second modernity will result in the rise of what? A transnational state
Zygmunt Bauman argued that the Holocaust was an expression what? The essential nature of modernity
Who contributed the idea of liquid modernity? Bauman
Bauman sees globalization in terms of what? A space war
In Bauman's view, what has become the most important and differentiating factor in social stratification in the world today? Mobility
The losers in the space war are relegated to what? Confinement in territories denuded of meaning and even of the ability to offer meaning.
The freedom of mobility, or lack of it, result in the elites feeling 1)what- and the rest feeling 2)what? 1)Intoxicated 2)Imprisoned and humiliated
The winners of freedom of mobility, according to Bauman, can be seen to live in what? Time rather than space
The losers of freedom of mobility, according to Bauman, can be seen to live in what? Space
What is the term for those who are on the move throughout the globe because they want to be? Tourists
What is the term for those who are on the move throughout the globe because they find their environs unbearable and inhospitable for any number of reasons. Vagabonds
How does globalization translate into uneasiness for most of us? Most people are not only unsure exactly where they now stand, but wherever it is, they are not sure they will be in the same place tomorrow.
What are the problems associated with the winners of mobility? 1.Impossibility of slowing down - it is hard to always be on the move and at high speed. 2. Unending string of choices & uncertainty associated with it. 3) Each of these choices carries a series of risks & dangers.
What is the broadest domain of cultures and cultural identities; culture "writ large"? Civilization
What three major paradigms in theorizing the cultural aspects of globalization has Jan Nederveen Pieterse identified? Different, converging, or creating new "hybrid" forms out of the unique combination of global and local cultures
Those who adopt the cultural differentialism paradigm argue what? That there are lasting differences among and between cultures that are largely unaffected by globalization or any other bi-, inter-, multi-, and transcultural process.
What 2 current events has attracted increasing attention and adherents to the paradigm of cultural differentialism? Terrorist attacks of 9-11 w/ subsequent wars; Increasing multiculturalism of the U.S. (mainly Hispanic growth) & Western European countries (mainly Muslim growth) & the vast differences & enmity between majority & minority populations.
What is the most famous and controversial example of the paradigm of cultural differentialism? Samuel Huntington's "Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World Order"
What is Huntington concerned about in regard to civilizations? The emergence of fault lines among and between them, which is a highly dangerous situation given historic enmities.
Created by: silvrwood