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Soc Theory Ch8

Contemporary Sociological Theory and Its Classical Roots Ch 8

QuestionAnswer
Which of these terms does not describe feminist theory? Specific Wide-ranging Interdisciplinary Woman-centered Specific
How is feminist theory woman-centered? The starting point of all its investigation is the situations and experiences of women in society. It seeks to describe & critically evaluate the world from the distinctive vantage points of women.
How does feminist theory develop the concept of gender? From a marginal variable in sociology to a major field of study.
What has been described in terms of "waves" of collective mobilization? Feminist activism
What did the first-wave feminist activism center on? Women's struggle for the vote and admission to the political process.
What did the second-wave feminist activism focus on? Translating basic political rights into tangible economic and social equality with men.
TRUE or FALSE - The impetus for contemporary feminist theory begins with the question, "And what about women?" TRUE
Although women have been actively present in most social situations, academics and people in general have been what? Blind to their presence.
What is feminism's second basic question? Why is all this as it is?
What is a concept developed in feminist sociological theory to distinguish between sex, the biologically determined attributes associated with male and female, and socially constructed behaviors associated with masculinity and femininity? Gender
Nearly all feminist theories agree on what about gender? It is a social construction.
What is the third question of feminism? How can we change and improve the social world to make it a more just place for all people?
What is the distinctive character of critical social theory? The commitment to social transformation in the interest of justice.
Which theories share the commitment to social transformation in the interest of justice? Feminism, Marxism, neo-Marxism, and those developed by racial, ethnic and sexual minorities and in postcolonial societies.
What is the fourth question of feminism? And what about the differences among women?
What profoundly affects the invisibility, inequality, and role differences in relation to men that generally characterize women's lives? Class, race, age, affectional preference, marital status, religion, ethnicity, and global location.
What radical transformation is feminism producing in our understanding of the world? What we have taken as universal and absolute knowledge is in fact knowledge derived from the experiences of a powerful section of society, men as masters.
Feminism does what two things to established knowledge? Relativizes and deconstructs.
How does feminism deconstruct established systems of knowledge? By showing their masculinist bias and the gender politics framing and informing them.
What three sources have challenged the most basic concept of feminism? Whether there is a single woman's standpoint (as positioned by other marginalized groups). Validity of the binary understanding of gender as masculine or feminine. The reality of gender, of individual self & hence standpoint of women (postmodernism).
Who wrote "Illustrations of Political Economy" in 1832-1834? Harriet Martineau
What was the first methods text in sociology, and who drafted it? "How to Observe Morals and Manners" by Harriet Martineau
Who, along with Auguste Comte, is recognized as one of the first inventors of sociology? Harriet Martineau
What do we call the process by which women can be major players in the creation and development of a field and yet have their contributions remain invisible? Erasure
Name some of the women who formed a broad and connected network of social reformers who were developing pioneering sociological theories at the same time as Durkheim, Weber, Simmel and Mead were creating the academic field of sociology? Jane Addams Anna Julia Cooper Charlotte Perkins Gilman Florence Kelley Beatrice Potter Webb Marianne Weber Ida B. Wells-Barnett
What were the first two chief hallmarks of the foremothers of sociological theory? Critical rather than descriptive or explanatory analysis Emphasis that women's experience, lives and works are equal in importance to men's.
What were the second two chief hallmarks of the foremothers of sociological theory? Awareness that they speak from a situated and embodied standpoint, and that said awareness must be central to sociological theory. Concern with domination as the chief practice by which inequality is maintained in the world.
Domination is the power relation in which the superordinate make the subordinate what? An instrument of his will, denying the subordinate's individual capacity for thought and opinion.
What distinguishes classical women theorists from each other? Nature of and remedy for the inequality on which they focused.
What did developing sociology use to define classical women theorists as "not sociologists?" Their activism
What 3 approaches does Judith Lorber identify in terms of how feminist theories approach gender inequality? Aim to reform the gender system by equalizing opportunities for men & women. Aim to resist the gender system by actively promoting the value of women's ways of being. Rebel against the gender system by challenging the existence of gender itself.
What approach do liberal and socialist theories take to gender inequality according to Lorber? Reform
What approach do radical, cultural and psychoanalytic theories take to gender inequality according to Lorber? Resist
What approach do postmodern and queer theories take to gender inequality according to Lorber? Rebel
What question does Ritzer's typology of feminism theories focus on? What about women?
What 4 basic answers does Ritzer map out for classifying feminism theories? Women's location in and experience of most situations is: Different than men's. Not only different but unequal to men's. Women are oppressed. Women's experiences of difference, inequality & oppression vary according to structure (structural oppression
What has been the shift in focus of much feminist theorizing? From women's oppression to oppressive practices and structures that impact the lives of the majority of the world's population - men and women.
What major line of division has developed between interpretations of feminism? Between emphasis on culture and meaning, and emphasis on material consequences of power.
What has the debate in feminist over meaning or materiality focused on? Problematizing gender.
What is an example of a feminist theory that is currently dormant? Psychoanalytic feminism, and to some degree radical feminist theory
What is an example of feminist theories that are dynamic and currently expanding? Ethnomethodology and intersectionality
According to Ritzer's typology, what feminist theories fall in the gender difference category? Cultural feminism Phenomenological Institutional Interactional/ethnomethodological
According to Ritzer's typology, what feminist theories fall in the gender inequality category? Liberal feminism Rational choice feminism
According to Ritzer's typology, what feminist theories fall in the gender oppression category? Psychoanalytic feminism Radical feminism
According to Ritzer's typology, what feminist theories fall in the structural oppression category? Socialist feminism Intersectionality theory
What do theories of gender difference have to confront? The problem of the essentialist argument.
What does the essentialist argument trace the supposed fundamental differences between men and women to? Biology, the needs of social institutions for men and women to perform different roles, the mental need of humans to think in categorical terms of "Otherness" as part of defining the self.
What does cultural feminism explore and celebrate? The social value of women's distinctive ways of being that are different from men.
What qualities did theorists such as Margaret Fuller, Frances Wilard, Jane Addams, and Charlotte Perkins Gilman argue that the governing of society needs that women provide? Cooperation, pacifism, nonviolence in settling disputes
What is the best known contemporary work on cultural feminism? Carol Gilligan's thesis that women make their moral decisions based on an ethic of care, versus male ethic based on abstract principles.
What is andocentric Male-centered
What is one of the most enduring themes of feminist theory developed by existential or phenomenological feminism? Women are marginalized as "Other" in a male created culture.
What is a feminist theory of difference that sees people born into a world shaped by a culture that reflects male experience and ignores or marginalizes women's experiences? Existential or phenomenological feminism
TRUE or FALSE - According to existential or phenomenological feminism, women do not internalize the "otherness" assigned by males? FALSE
What critical questions does existential or phenomenological feminism ask? Can women liberate themselves form the status of object/other? Must women become like men to do so?
How do thinkers like Helene Cixous and Luce Irigaray aseert that liberation will come for women? When they develop a consciousness and culture that is uniquely theirs.
What is a feminist theory that sees gender differences as resulting from the different roles that women and men play within various institutional settings? Feminist institutional theory
What is a feminist theory that views gender as an accomplishment by skilled actors in interaction with others who hold them accountable for conforming to appropriate gender behavior? Feminist interactionist theory
Created by: silvrwood