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# NASM-CPT Ch.17 2013

### Nutrition

Nutrition is: the sum of the processes by which an animal or plant takes in and uses food substances for growth and repair of tissues
What can a registered dietician(RD)legally do? legally qualified to practice in the field of nutrition.
8 areas the Personal Trainers may discuss or give advice in are . . . 1. Food Preparation, 2. Healthy Snacks, 3. Statistics on chronic disease, 4. vitamins and minerals, 5. water, 6. nutrients contained in foods or supplements, 8. Food Guidance (food pyramid)
By 2015, how many U.S. adults will be overweight or obese? 75%
What are the macronutients? protein, carbohydrate, and fat
What is a calorie? unit of energy , the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree C
Resting Metabolic rate (RMR)is: The amount of energy expended while at rest (for blood circulation, respiration)70 % of TEE
Thermic effect of food (TEF)is: The amount of energy expended above RMR as a result of the processing of food for storage and use. TEF typically account for 6 - 10%
TEE is an acroynym for? Total Energy Expenditure
What is energy expended During Daily Activity? The amount of energy above RMR, TEF. Accounts for approximately 20% of TEE.
What is the equation for estimating the Daily Energy Expenditure? Weight X 10 = RMR RMR X activity factor = TEE 133 X 10 = 1330 X 1.6 = 2128 calories 150 X 10 = 1500 X 1.5 = 2250 calories Very Light activity = 1.2 - 1.3 Low Active = 1.5 - 1.6 Active = 1.6 - 1.7 Very Active = 1.9 - 2.1
What is the function of Protein? Build and repair body tissues and structures, linked by peptide bonds
What are the two types of amino acids? Essential and nonessential
What are the Essential Amino Acids? Can not be manufactured by the body, must be obtained from a food source. 8 ILLMPTTV, or I double L, M, P, Double T, V Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine
What are the Non-essential Amino Acids? The body is able to manufacture them from dietary nitrogen and fragments of carb and fat. Alaine, Aparagine, Aspartic Acid, Cysteine, Glutanic Acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Proline, Serine, Tyrosine
What are the stages of the digestion of food Mouth, Esphagus, Small Intestine, and Lining of the Small Intestine.
What is a complete protein A food that supplies all of the amino acids
What is an incomplete protein? A food that does not contain all of the necessary amino acids
What are the major sources of complete protein sources? Animal: meat, diary
What is gluconeogenesis? During negative energy balance (lower caloric intake) amino acids are used to assist in energy production.
Recommended Daily Protein Intakes: Sedentary = (.4g/lb) Strength Althletes = .5 - .8 g/lb Endurance Athletes: .5 - .6 g/lb So, take body weight of an athlete (140 X.5)= 70 grams
Types of carbohydrates: Simple = sugars (Monosacharide or Disacharide) Starches = complex fiber
Polysacharides Complex carbohydrates: long chains of monosaccharide units linked together.
Glycemic Index The rate at which ingested carbohydrate raises blood sugar and its accompanying effect on insulin release.
What are the two type of fiber? Soluble and Insoluble
What is a soluble fiber It can be dissolved by water and forms a gel-like substance in the digestive tract. It moderates blood glucose levels and lowering cholesterol. Oats, oatmeal, legumes, barley, uncooked fruits, vegatables
What is insoluble fiber It does not absorb or dissolve in water. Passes through digestive system as it went in.
Carbohydrate recomendations 2.7 - 4.5 /lb
What is the percent of Daily Carbohydrate that is recommended for the body? 45 - 65%
How many calories in a gram of Carbohydrate? 4
How much fiber is recommended? 25 - 38 g fruits, whole grains, and vegetables
Starch and Fiber are: Complex Carbohydrates
Name to sugars that are monosaccharide. glucose, fructose, galactose
What are 3 disaccharides? maltose, lactose, succrose
What is the recommended amount of Carbohydrate in the diet? (2.7 - 4.5 g/ pound)
What are the 3 types of lipids? Triglycerides (95%), Phospholipids and sterols
What kind of fatty acids can not be manufactured by the body? Poly unsaturated Fatty Acids omega 3
What kinds of fatty acids are in good oils like canola, and associated with increases in good cholesterol. Unsaturaded Fatty Acids
What kind of fat raises the bad cholesterol levels? Saturated
What type acids uses hydrogenation (adding hydroden to unsaturated fatty acids to make them hard at room temp. Trans Fatty Acids
How many calories in 1 g of fat 9 calories
Which vitamins are water soluble B,C
What is the recommended percentage of fat? 20 - 35% of total coloric intake
What is the recommended percentage of fat for an athlete? 25%
What is hyperphagia overeating
How much water should a man drink? 13 cups
How much water should a women drink? 9 cups
How much water should a person in a fat loss program drink? 8 ounces of water for every 25 pounds
Water: How much before exercise? 14 - 22 ounces
Water: How much to drink during exercise? 6 - 12 oz of fluid for every 15 minutes of exercise
Drinking the correct amount of water will improve . . . Body temperature, metabolic function, endocrine gland and liver function.
RDA for carbs % 45-65%
RDA for fats % 20-35%
RDA from simple carbs % less than 25%
Which vitamins are fat soluble A,D,E,K
Main function of carbs primary source of energy
Carbs are protein sparing because a body with enough carbs won't have to break down protein for energy
Difference between polysaccharide and disaccharide polysaccharides are more complex.They are often called complex carbs found in starch and fiber
Characteristic of fats storage form of energy and back up for carbs
Olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, avocados, peanuts, almonds are examples of Monounsaturated Fats