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Sociology 7 & 9

Chapters 7 & 9 Study Stack

Deviance Behavior that departs from societal or group norms
Negative Deviance Involves behavior that underconforms to accepted norms
Positive Deviance Involves behavior that overconforms to social expectations
Deviant A person who breaks significant societal or group norms
Social Control Ways to encourage conformity to society's norms
Social Sanctions Rewards or punishments that encourage conformity to social norms
Anomie A social condition in which norms are weak, conflicting, or absent.
Strain Theory Theory that deviance is more likely to occur when a gap exists between cultural goals and the ability to achieve these goals by legitimate means.
Control Theory Theory that compliance with social norms requires strong bonds between individuals and society.
Differential Association Theory Theory that individuals learn deviance in proportion to the number of deviant acts they are exposed to.
Labeling Theory Theory that society creates deviance by identifying particular members as deviant.
Primary Deviance Deviance involving occasional breaking of norms that is not a part of a person's lifestyle or self-concept.
Secondary Deviance Deviance in which an individual's life and identity are organized around breaking society's norms
Stigma An undesirable trait or label that is used to characterize an individual.
Victim Discounting Process of reducing the seriousness of the crimes that injure people of lower status.
White Collar Crime Job-related crimes committed by high-status people.
Crime Acts committed in violation of the law.
Criminal Justice System Comprising institutions and processes responsible for enforcing criminal statutes.
Retribution Punishment intended to make criminals pay compensation for their acts.
Incarceration A method of protecting society from criminals by keeping them in prisons.
Rehabilitation Process of changing or reforming a criminal through socialization.
Recidivism A repetition of or return to criminal behavior.
Minority A group of people with physical or cultural traits different from those of the dominant group in the society.
Race People sharing certain inherited physical characteristics that are considered important within a society.
Ethnic Minority Group identified by cultural, religious, or national characteristics.
Assimilation The blending or fusing of minority groups into the dominant society.
Cultural Pluralism Desire of a group to maintain some sense of identity separate from the dominant group.
Genocide The systematic effort to destroy an entire population.
Subjugation Process by which a minority group is denied equal access to the benefits of a society.
De Jure Segregation Denial of equal access based on the law.
De Facto Segregation Denial of equal access based on everyday practice.
Prejudice Widely held negative attitudes towards a group (minority or majority) and its individual members.
Racism An extreme form of prejudice that assumes superiority of one group over others.
Discrimination Treating people differently based on ethnicity, race, religion, or culture.
Hate Crime A criminal act motivated by prejudice.
Sterotype A distorted, exaggerated,or oversimplified image applied to a category of people.
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy An expectation that leads to behavior that causes the expectation to become reality.
Institutionalized Discrimination Unfair practices that grow out of common behaviors and attitudes and that are a part of the structure of a society.
Hidden Unemployment Unemployment that includes people not counted in the traditional unemployment categories.
Underclass People typically unemployed who come from families that have been poor for generations.
Created by: geristaley