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HIT 112 Module 4

QuestionAnswer
1. Patient shows total unawareness to external stimuli and unresponsiveness to painful stimuli. 2. No movements or breathing 3. No reflexes Characteristics of brain death
Medical ethics does not require that a patient's life be preserved at all costs and in all circumstances. True
1. Family members disagree as to the imcompetent's wishes 2. Physicians disagree on the prognosis 3. The patient's wishes cannot be known Cases in which court involvement would be mandated
cessation of respiration, heartbeat, and certain indications of central nervous system activity, such as respiration and pulsation Death
enacted to ensure that patients are informed of their rights to execute advance directives and accept or refuse medical care Patient Self-Determination Act of 1990
the intentional commission of an act, such as giving a patient a lethal drug that results in death active euthanasia
when life-saving treatment (such as a respirator) is withdrawn or withheld, allowing the patient diagnosed as terminal to die a natural death passive euthanasia
occurs when the suffering incurable patient makes the decision to die voluntary euthanasia
occurs when a person other than the incurable person makes the decision to terminate the life of the incurable person involuntary euthanasia
instructions given by individuals specifying what actions should be taken for their health in the event that they are no longer able to make healthcare decisions as a result of illness or incapacity Advance directives for health care
A patient should be asked at the time of admission if he or she has an advance directive. True
Living will Durable Power of Attorney Examples of advance directives
The patient can execute a new directive at any time if desired. True
The patient should be periodically queried about whether he or she wishes to make any changes with regard to an advance directive. True
the instrument or legal document that describes those treatments an individual wishes or does not with to receive should he or she become incapacitated and unable to communicate treatment decisions. living will
A living will should be signed and dated by two witnesses who are not blood relatives or beneficiaries of property. True
The written instructions in a living will become effective when a patient is either in a terminal condition, permanently unconscious, or suffering irreversible brain damage. True
a legal document that allows a person to appoint a healthcare agent to make treatment decisions in the event he or she becomes incapacitated and is unable to make decisions for him- or herself healthcare proxy
Oral declarations are accepted only after the patient has been declared terminally ill. True
a legal device that permits one individual, known as the principal, to give to another person, called the attorney-in-fact, the authority to act on his or her behalf. Durable Power of Attorney
If the principal becomes comatose or mentally incompetent, the power or attorney automatically expires, just as it would if the principal dies. True
agent who acts on behalf of a patient who lacks the capacity to participate in a particular decision. surrogate decision maker
a form of surrogate decision making where the surrogate attempts to establish what decision the patient would have made if that patient were competent to make a decision. Substituted judgement
a legal mechanism by which the court declares a person incompetent and appoints a guardian. Guardianship
1. has sufficient mind to reasonably understand the condition 2. is capable of understanding the nature and effect of the treatment choices 3. is aware of the consequences associated with those choices 4. choice that is voluntary and not coerced Test for determining whether a person has the requisite capacity to make a decision
Patients have an obligation to make medical preferences known to the treating physician. True
occurs when the physician recognizes that the effect of treatment will be of no benefit to the patient Futility of treatment
a decision not to initiate treatment or medical interventions for the patient Withdrawal of treatment
the body functions entirely in terms of its internal controls. It maintains temperature. It maintains digestive activity. It maintains heart beat and pulmonary ventilation. It maintains reflex activity of muscles and nerves for low-level conditioned persistent vegetative state
orders given by a physician indicating that, in the event of a cardiac or respiratory arrest, no resuscitative measures should be used to revive the patient. Do-not-resuscitate (DNR)
DNR orders must be in writing and signed and dated by the physician. True
DNR orders must comply with statutory requirements, be of short duration, and be reviewed periodically to determine whether the patient's condition or other circumstances (e.g. change of mind by the patient or family) surrounding the "no code" orders have True
Deaths that occur during a surgical procedure are generally reportable events to the medical examiner. True
If an autopsy fro medical evaluation is desired by the hospital, consent must be obtained from the next of kin. True
1. Mutilation of the body 2. Unauthorized autopsy 3. Wrongful detention 4. Unauthorized use or publication of photographs taken after death Wrongful handling of dead bodies
Most autopsy consent statutes provide that persons may authorize an autopsy prior to death. True
Generally, the primary right to custody of a deceased person belongs to the surviving spouse. True
The body of a deceased person imposes a duty on a healthcare facility to make reasonable efforts to give notice to persons entitled to claim the body. True
When there are no known relatives or friends of the family who can be contacted by the facility to claim the body, the facility has a responsibility to dispose of the body in accordance with law. True
_____ and _____ must govern all stages of research. Honesty; integrity
contains ethical principles that provide guidance to physicians and other participants in medical research involving human subjects. Declaration of Helsinki; 1964
an international code of ethics that governs human research and experimentation; requires that human subjects be fully informed as to the nature and societal benefits of the research being undertaken Nuremburg Coge
functions to review proposed research studies and conduct follow-up reviews on a regular basis Institutional Review Board (IRB)
responsible for reviewing, monitoring, and approving clinical protocols for investigations of drugs and medical devices involving human subjects Institutional Review Board (IRB)
Even if patient consent is obtained, the consent must adequately inform the patient of a treatment's potential side effects. True
genes or DNA sequences with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify specific cells and diseases, as well as individuals and species. Genetic markers
This law prohibits discrimination on the basis of genetic information with respect to the availability of health insurance and employment. Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA)
that branch of philosophy that seeks to understand the nature, purposes, justification, and the founding principles of moral rules and the systems they compromise ethics
Ethics deals with values related to human conduct. True
Ethics is less concerned with factual knowledge than with virtues and values - namely, human conduct as it ought to be, as opposed to what it actually is. True
involves and individual's view of what is right and wrong based on life experiences. Microethics
involves a more global view of right and wrong Macroethics
a code of conduct. It is a guide to behavior that all rational persons put forward for governing their behavior Morality
ideas about what is right and wrong morals
those judgements concerned with what an individual or group believes to be right or proper behavior in a given situation. Moral judgements
prescribes standards of conduct, states principles expressing responsibilities, and defines the rules expressing duties of professionals to whom they apply code of ethics
used to guide human conduct by stating desirable traits to be exhibited and undesirable ones standards
describe responsibilities that do not specify what the required conduct should be. Principles
specify specific conduct; they do not allow for individual professional judgement Rules
describes the principle of doing good, demonstrating kindness, showing compassion, and helping others Beneficence
People, often believing they know what is best for another, often make decisions that they believe are in that person's best interest. Paternalism
involves making choices for patients who are capable of making their own choices. medical paternalism
recognizing an individual's right to make his or her own decisions about what is best for him or herself. autonomy
describes the ethics of an organization and how it responds to internal or external circumstances affecting the organization's mission and values. Organizational ethics
addresses legal-ethical issues that arise during the course of a patient's care and treatment Healthcare ethics committee
The ethics committee is not a decision maker but a resource that provides advice to help guide others in making wiser decisions when there is no clear best choice. True
universal rules of conduct, derived from ethical theories that provide s practical basis for identifying what kinds of actions, intentions, and motives are valued. Principles of ethics
an ethical principle that requires caregivers to avoid causing patients harm Nonmaleficence
the obligation to be fair in the distribution of benefits and risks justice
serves a moral purpose by providing codes of conduct for appropriate behavior through revelations from a divine source religious ethics
based on codes developed by societies that have relied on customs to formulate their codes secular ethics
a set of standards or codes of conduct established by the membership of a specific profession professional ethics
1. Promote the rights of patients 2. Promote shared decision making between patients and their clinicians 3. Assist the patient and family, as appropriate, in coming to consensus regarding the options that best meet the patient's goal for care Goals of the ethics committee
Ethics committees should address external issues that affect internal operations. True
Created by: adale3171