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HD Final

Ms Sheppard

polycystic kidney disease kidneys are composed of multiple cysts; developmental defect of the collecting tubules in the cortex of the kidneys
What effects do juices (especially cranberry) have on the urine acidifies urine
If urine is brown-black in color could be poison, hemorrhage, dried blood
2 common causes of renal failure hypertension, diabetes
hematuria blood in the urine; UTI, cystitis
dysuria difficulty voiding
Causes of kidney stones dehydration, renal failure, increase in uric acid, increase in vitamin D
Treatment for patients w Chronic renal failure dialysis, kidney transplant
cystitis inflammation of the bladder
pyelonehpritis inflammation of the kidney & renal pelvis due to an infection; can be 1 kidney or both
2 common lower urinary tract infections cystitis, urethritis
what is characterized by proteinuria Nephrotic Syndrome
Neurogentic bladder any loss or impairment of bladder function caused by CNS injury or dmg to the nerves supplying the bladder
Tumors of the bladder are almost always malignant
what drug is instilled in the eyes of a newborn to prevent ophthalmia (gonorrhea) 1% silver nitrate
what is the cause of testicular cancer no known causes; predisposing factor in crythrochidism
What is the prognosis of testicular cancer good following successful treatment of early stages of detection
who is most at risk for testicular cancer men under 40
amenorrhea absence on menarche beyond the age of 16
dysmenorrhea pain associated with mestruation
dyspareunia painful sex
endometriosis appearance & growth of endometrial tissues in areas outside the endometrium
chancre ulcerated, red firm sore. Primary indication of syphilis; occurs at point of entry of the infection
prognosis for genital herpes no cure
What is sometimes called the silent STD? why? Chlamydia; asymptomatic
metorrhagia bleeding not associated with menstrual flow; abnormal uterine discharge
menorrhagia excessive menstrual flow in duration and quantity or both
difference between an illness & disease illness - describes the condition of a person, S/S, Not classified Disease - can be medically classified & distinguishing features
idiopathic disease w no known cause
iatrogenic disease caused by medical treatment
heat stroke; heat exhaustion stroke- stop sweating, skin hot/dry, temp control mechanism malfunctions Exhaustion - skin pale/clammy, still sweating, body temp may still be normal
List a disease caused by a virus & how is it treated common cold - treated w antiviral; no treatment except for symtome relief
first degree burn affect only the outer layer of skin, skin is red, painful and dry; no blisters
second degree burn burn effects the epidermis & dermis, skin appears red, blistered, and may be swollen
third degree burn destroys the epidermis & dermis layers, may also dmg underlying bones, muscles & tendons, skin appears white and charred; sensation is lost because nerve endings are destroyed
how are burns % classified The Rule of Nines
disease spread to humans by mosquito feeding on infected birds from New York west nile
another name for small pox variola
3 forms of anthrax cutaneous (skin) intestinal inhalation - Worst to have
what spread quickly from continent to continent and believed to have originated in Hong Kong SARS
another name for Rubella is there a vaccine German Measles, yes (MMR)
What virus causes AIDS HIV
What meds are used to treat HIV/AIDS AZT
Normal T4 cells for healthy adult 1000
A patient may be diagnosed with AIDS/HIV if T4 cells drops to 200
Another name for chicken pox? is there a vaccine varicella, yes
Another name for mumps is there a vaccine Parotitus, yes
Which disease causes swelling of the parotid, salivary gland mumps (parotitus)
Another name of whooping cough Pertussis
another name for lock jaw is there a vaccine tetanus, yes
who first described how blood is pumped throughout the heart william harvey
who discovered smallpox vaccine edward jenner
hemorrhoids dilated veins in the mucus membrane of the anus or rectum
Crohn's disease affects chronic inflammation, usually the ileum, extending through all layers of the intestinal walls. Inflammation tends to be patchy or segmented
Ulcerative colitis inflammation and ulceration of the colon, often beginning in the rectum or sigmoid colon and extending upward. Effects entire colon
pancreatic cancer usually occurs in the _____ of the pancreas head
a system of appendicitis is pain at Mcburney's Point, RLQ
Classic symptom of ulcertive colitis bloody diarrhea
diverticulitis acute inflammation of the small, pouch like herniation's in the intestinal wall
cholelithiasis formation or presence of gall stones w/i the gallbladder or bile ducts
cholecystectomy removal of the gall bladder
what is characterized by an all-consuming desire to be thin anorexia nurvosa
what is charactizied by repetitive gorging w food, followed by self induced vomiting bulimia
polydipsia excessive thirst
gallbladder stores bile
liver secretes bile
fuctions of the liver produces bile, helps with metabolism
Hepatitis ABCD all viral, all effect the liver
Hepatitis A & E tramsmitted by oral - fecal route
Hepatitis B,C,D tranmitted by blood borne
In order to get hepatitis D you must first have hepatitis B
Hepatitis vaccines for only A, B
In a patient is in liver failure the only option is a liver transplant - NO dialysis
What is an opacity or clouding of the lens of the eye cataract
what causes fluid pressure to accumulate within the eye which dmgs the retina & optic nerve glaucoma
hat does a tonometer measure pressure behind the eye
a disorder in which the eyes cannot be directed to focus on the same subject strabismus
blepharitis is inflammation of the eye lids
inflammation of the cornea keratitis
Cushing's syndrome s/s moon shaped face, buffalo hump
Gigantism is excessive growth of the long bones; effects childern
polyuria excessive urination output
polydipsia excessive thirst
another name for Graves disease hyperthyroidism
When hyperthyroidism appears as a congenital condition it is called cretinism
when hyperthyroidism appears in childhood or adulthood it is called myxedema
the treatment goal for Cushing's is to restore cortisol to normal levels
Hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex is Cushing's
Diabetes mellitus, which type generally is overweight type II
exophthalmus bulging of the eyes (usually seen in Graves disease)
diabetic coma glucose levels re high, skin is flushed & dry, fruity odor to breath, caused by not taking insulin & diet, treat w insulin & salt water (NaCL)
diabetic shock gloucose low, skin is clammy & pale, no odor to breath, cause - took to much insulin or did not eat enough, N&V, treatment-sugar
A bilateral, symmetrical, non progressive paralysis resulting from developmental defects of the brain or trauma at birth is Cerebral Palsy
Define hydrocephalus too much CSF in the ventricles of the brain; occurs before the cranial sutures have fused
what is the treatment for hydrocephalus a shunt is placed from the affected ventricles of the brain into the peritoneal cavity or into the right atrium of the heart
classic symptom for pyloric stenosis projectile vomiting 3'-4'
inadequate intestinal motility causing obstruction and dilation of the colon with feces can cause what condition Hirschsprung disease
define acyanotic defect of the heart. give examples no mixing or poorly oxygenated blood with the blood reentering the systemic circulation; ventricular septal defect, artrial septal defect
list cyanotic defect examples poorly oxygenated blood mixes with the blood reentering the systemic circulation
Undescended testes (1 or both) cryptorchidism
congenital malformation in which the lower portion of the abdominal wall and the anterior wall of the bladder is missing Exstrophy of the bladder
another name for clubfoot talipes
A positive Ortolani's sign confirms Congenital hip displasia
Treatment for PKU consist of a protein-restrictive diet
How is Hirschsprung's disease diagnosed rectal biopsy that reveals the absence of ganglion cells in the colorectal wall, barium enema xray
ureterocele ureter invades into bladder and takes up its space
with duplicate ureters, each kidney has 2 ureters instead of 1
there are _____ basic types of talipes 4
CF is a congenital diorder of the ______ glands exocrine
how is sickle cell anemia transmitted hereditary
what is another name for Down Syndrome trisomy 21
which heart defect occurs when the ductus arteriosus fails to close at birth PDA
which heart defect occurs when the 2 major arteries of the heart are reversed Transpostion of the great arteries
define seborrheic dermatitis chronic functional disease of the sebaceous glands
define cradle cap seborreheic dematis in infants; over active sabaceous glands
define contact dermatitis acute skin inflammation caused by direct contact w/ irritants
the integumentary system synthesizes Vitamin ____ when exposed to sunlight D
Describe the appearance of a malignant melanoma irregular boarders, diversity in colors, tends to spread downwards
An acute inflammatory eruption of highly painfull vesicles on the trunk or face shingles
ABCDE asysemtry, boarder irregularity, color, diameter, elevation
whats another name for shingles herpes zoster
shingles share a with whatcommon etiology with what other infectious disease chicken pox
what are s/s of shingles pain along a nerve, lessions
how may shingles be prevented vaccine for people over 60
whats the difference between cerebral concussion and contusion concussion - no bleeding, minor dmg contusion - bruising in the brain
hemiplegia paralysis of 1/2 the body
paraplegia paralysis of lower limbs
quadriplegia paralysis of all 4 limbs
causes of peripheral neuritis degeneration of the nerves carrying impluses to and from the spinal cord
S/S of peripheral neuritis tingling, prickling, burning, extreme sensitivity to touch
Bells Palsy is a disorder of the facial nerve which is the ______ cranial nerve 7
TIA ministroke
Parkinson disease, which neurotransmitter is missing dopamine
Chronic, autoimmune, progressive and irreversable disease characterized by destruction of the mylin sheath that insulates and protects the axons multiple sclerosis
what is another name for ALS lou gerhig disease
Reye Syndrome cause diognosis - increased level of ammonia in blood use of asprin in childen w/ viral infections stage 1 persistant vomiting, lethary, brain dysfunction, drowniness stge 2 personality changes, disorienation, delirum
osteoporosis bones become brittle, porus
causes of osteoporosis post menopausal women over 50, smaller boned people, heredity, lactose intolerance, vitimin D deficiency, alcoholism
Acute or chronic infection of the bone forming tissue Osteomyelitis
what is the most common bacterial infection that causes osteomyelitis staph
lordosis swayback; abnormal inward curvature of the spin
kyphosis hunch back; abnormal outward curvature of the spine
scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature of the sexchange of spine
what is the treatment for osteitis deformans PT, pharmalogical, pain management, surgery, NSAIDS
carpal tunnel syndrome is a snydrome that compresses the ________ in the wrist median nerve
what is internal respiration exchange of gases, oxygen and CO2 w/i the lungs
what is external respiration exchange of gases at the cellular level w/i the organs of the body
______ is an area of necrotized lung tissue containing purelent material. They are more common in the _________of the lung lung absecess, right lower
A lung abcess may be a complication of pneumonia
_______ is a slowly developing bacterial lung infection charterized by progressive necrososis of lung deisease Pulmonary TB
Tuberculosis is caused by bacteria true
Tuberculosis mostly affects the lungs but can invade other tissues true
what the difference between TB infection and TB disease Infection- not sick or contagious \ disease-very contagious, sick and requires isolation
If a patient has 1 postive TB skin test; they may have it repeated FALSE
what medication is most commonly used to treat TB INH
what is the only way to confim TB disease sepural culture
______ is a collection of air or gas in the plurel cavity Pneumothorax (collasped lung)
_____ is inflammation of the visceral and partietal plurel membrances that envelop each lung Plural effussion
a pulmonary embolism generally orginates in the pelvic/ or deep lower extermities and travels upwards
contraction of the heart is systole
relaxtion o the heart id diastole
inflammation of he pericardium which is a saclike membrance that surrounds the heart and protects the heart is pericardititis
inflammation of the cadiac muscle is myocardititis
inflammation of the membranne lining the valves and chambers of the heart and is charactized by adnormal growths called vegetations is endocarditis
what does the term stenosis mean valve opening is to narrow
what does dilation mean valve opening is to wide
persistently elevated blood pressure that develops without apparent cause is essetential hypetension
stage 1 hypertension is a bp of 140/90
stage 2 hypertension is a BP of 160/100
_____ is a uncomfortable squeezing, pressure, fulliness or pain in the chest from ischemia to part of the myocardium angina
__________ is a life threating condition in which blodd flow to a section of the heart muscle becomes blocked and causes death of a tissue mycardial infarction
CHF can cause both polmonary edema and peripheral edema true
what is the treatment for cardiac arrest CPR, defibrillation
What is AAA Abdominal aortic anueryms
What is TAA thoracic aortic anueryysyms
What is PAA peripheral aortic aneurysms
______ is charterized by inadequate reserves of iron in the body and fomation of small, hemoglobin-poor RBC's Iron deficiency anemia
What is chaterized by the apperance of large, abnormal RBC's which form when ther are inadquate levels of B12 within the body Pernicious anemia
Patients with pernicious anemia have to be treated with B12 for life
____ is an abnormal accumulation of lymph, usually in the extremities Not cancerous lymphedema
______ is a neoplastic malignancy of the lymph system charactizized by painless enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen and other lymph tissue lymphomia
Created by: jhowe2323