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NS exam #4

NS exam #3

what form of energy is used for high intensity activities? carbohydrates
what form of energy is used for low energy activities? fats
what is not used as a fuel source for exercise? protein (amino acids)
energy needs depends on body size, gender, type of physical activity, athlete or not
recommend amount of kcal from carbs 45-65%
recommended kcal from fat 15-25%
recommended kcal from protein 12-20%
recommended diet following exercise consume carbs with protein, enhances muscle protein synthesis
critical period (3-4 hours after exercise) to optimize glycogen storage and muscle protein synthesis
carbohydrate loading alter exercise duration and carb intake to maximize muscle glycogen
when is water an adequate form of hydration? activities lasting an hour or less
consume enough water to.. maintain body weight
heat exhaustion occurs when exercise causes loss of body fluids and then depleation of blood volume (sweating at 75% of humidity or higher)
(sweating at 75% of humidity or higher rapid fatigue
heat stroke occures when bodies temperature regulation mechanisms fail (core temp 104 or higher
symptoms of heat stroke rapid pulse, hot, dry skin, hight body temp, weakness
sports anemia increases the amount of water (plasma) in our blood without an increase in the amount of hemoglobin
B vitamins needed for increased energy metabolism
3 syndromes in female athlete triad eating disorders, osteoporosis, amenorrhea
female athlete triad menstrual dysfunction, low bone dynasty, disordered eating
ergonomic aids substances used to improve exercise and athletic performance
anabolic steroids testosterone based, effective in increasing muscle size, strength, power, and speed (illegal in US and IOC)
DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) precursor of testosterone, claim taking them will increase testosterone levels and muscle strength
GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyric acid) promoted as an alternative to anabolic steroids
creatine (creatine phosphate) stored in our muscles, does not seem to enhance performance in aerobic type performance but does seem to enhance sprint performance in running, swimming, and cycling
caffeine stimulant, makes us feel more alert and energetic, decreases fatigue increses use of fat as fuel, spares glycogen
ephedrine (ephedra, chinese ephedra and ma huang) was in market for weightless. weightloss only shown in sedentary women, when increases with caffeine allows for vigorous exercise to go longer before reaching exhaustion
carnitine helps shuffle fatty acids into the mitochondria to be used for energy, marketed as "fat burner"
chromium enhances insulins action of increasing the transport of amino acid in the cell, marketed as "fat burner"
ribose 5 carbon sugar critical to producton of ATP, claim to improve athletic performance
eating disorder psychiatric condition involving extreme body dissatisfaction and longterm eating patterns harming the body
disordered eating variety of abnormal or atypical eating behaviors used to reduce weight
anaerobic metabolism of glucose produces.. lactic acid
lactic acid by product of anaerobic metabolism, was once thought to cause muscle pain and fatigue, new research suggest that may not be true, may be used during high and low intensity
underweight having too little body fat to maintain health
overweight having a moderate amount of excess body fat
obese having an excess of body fat that adversely affects health
morbid obesity bodyweight exceeding 100% of normal, creating a very high risk for serious health complications
determining if a persons body weight is healthful should include determining BMI, measuring body composition, assessing the pattern of fat distribution
Body Mass Index (BMI) BMI={weight (lbs)/height (inches)^2} x703
BMI <18.5 underweight-increased risk of health problems
BMI 18.5-24.9 Normal
BMI 25-29.9 overweight
BMI 30-39 obese-incresed risk of health problems
BMI >40 morbid obesity-very hight risk of health problems
limitations of BMI may overestimate fat in athletes, may underestimate fat in older people and those with less muscle mass
densitometry underwater weighing
anthropometry measurement of skin fold thickness using skin fold calipers or body circumference
conductivity bioelectric impedance
duel energy xray absorptiometry (DEXA) considered to be the most accurate
Bod Pod air displacement (plethysmography), expensive
skinfold measurement most inaccurate, dependent on person taking measurement and degree of training
fat distribution pattern measured by weight to hip ratio and weight circumference (apple and pear shaped)
Apple shaped fat patterning upper body, increased risk for chronic diseases
pear shaped fat patterning lower body, no significant increased risk for chronic disease
Waist to hip ratio waist circumperence/hip circumference desirable:<0.80 women, <0.95 men
waist circumferece risk of death/chrnic diseases from all causes appears to be highest for individuals with central obesity which is defined as >40in males, >35 inches females
wheather a person gains or loses weight epends on energy intake vs energy expenditure, genetic factors, childhood weight, behavior/lifestyle choices, social factor
weight loss equation eat fewer calories+increase activity=weight loss
energy in carbohydrates 4kcal/g
energy in protein 4kcal/g
energy in fat 9kcal/g
alcohol 7kcal/g
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) energy expended to maintain basal or resting functions of the body, the highest proportion of total energy expenditure
BMR increases with more lean body mass, during stress, and periods of growth (childhood&prego), illness, and fever
BMR decreases with age and during energy restriction (fasting or starvation)
Calculate your BMR men: weight (kg)x 1.0 x 24 hrs women: weight (kg) x 0.9 x 24 hrs
physical activity and energy expenditure 15-35% of daily energy expenditure
thermal effect of food energy expended to digest, absorb, transport, metabolize and store food; 5-10% of total expenditure, lowest for fat and highest for protein
direct calorimetry method that measures the amount of heat the body releases
indirect calorimetry estimates energy expenditure by measuring oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production
genetic factor about 25% of ones body fat is accounted for by genetic influences
thrift gene theory proposes that a gene causes people to be energetically thrifty, people with this gene expend less energy than other people and therefore gain weight
set point theory proposes that each persons weight stays within a small range (set point), the body compensates for changes in energy balance and keeps a persons weight at his/her set point
leptin acts to reduce food intake, produced by body fat act to reduce food intake
ghrelin stimulates appetite, increases when hungry and decreases about one hour after eating, not diminished with obesity
peptide YY (PYY) decreases appetite, released in the GI tract, after a meal to decrease appetite and inhibit food intake
social factors that influence our diet family/cultural traditions, holidays, easy access to high fat foo, less physical activity, social expectations of the "perfect" body
high fat, low carb, high protein diet results in low blood glucose levels which leads to decreases energy levels, diminished cognitive functioning and increased ketones (Dr. Atkins diet revolution, protein powder)
moderate fat, high carb, moderate protein diet balanced in nutrients, gradual weight loss (weight waters, jenny craig, DASH diet, USDA MyPyramid)
low fat and very low fat diets about 11-19% of total energy as fat, regular exercise is key, effective at weight loss but to restrictive to maintain over time. lower LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin levels, blood pressure
how many kcals in 1 pound of fat 3,500
how many kcal in 5 pounds of fat 17,500
appropriate weight loss no more than 1-2 pounds per week
consequence of a 2% error in energy balance over 20 years 31,796 g fat produced, 27,026 g adipose tissue, 59.5 pounds gained
adipose tissue has how much fat 85%
weight loss meds and herbal supplements may have dangerous side effects, many have been removed from market, should only be used on obese people or heave people with health risks
effective weight gain eat 500-1000 extra calories per day, eat throughout day, keep balanced diet, avoid tobacco
cutting back on one can of soda a year can lead to a weight loss of how much per year? 15 pounds
soft drinks have how many kcals of sugar 150kcal
protein supplements do not increase muscle growth or strength, can cause dehydration, liver and kidney damage, calcium loss, compromised absorption of amino acids
how many of the leading causes of death in US are associated with obesity 5 out of 9
dyslipidemia elevated total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, decreased HDL choleterol
treatments for obesity lo calorie diet and reglar exercise, medications, vertical banded gastroplasty, gastric bypass gastric banding
Meridia (sibutramine) decreases appetite by altering brain neurotransmitters
Xenical (orlistat) inhibits pancreatic lipase and decreases fat absorption
4 components of fitness flexibility, strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition
regular physical activity reduces the risk of heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, colon cancer
how many americans do not get sufficient physical activity? more than half of the population
how many highschool students participate in physical activity? less than 30%
a good physical fitness program meets your personal goals, is fun, include variety and consistence, appropriately overloads the body, includes a warm up and cool down
The FIT principal frequency, intensity, time of activity
cool downs help to prevent injuries, prevent soreness
calculating maximum heart rate 220-your age=MHR
how close to your MHR should you be at during exercise less fit at 50%, for fit at 75%
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) the common currency of energy for virtually all cells in the body
how much ATP do the muscles store enough for about 1-3 seconds of activity (must be generated continuously)
metabolism of glucose anerobic breakdown of glucose yields 2 ATP, aerobic breakdown of glucose yields 36-38 ATP
Triglyceride (fats) can be metabolized to generate ATP for low intensity exercise, exercise of long duration, provides 2x more energy per gram than carbohydrate, "unlimited" supply
multiple factors contribute to the development of an eating disorder family environment, unrealistic media image, sociocultural values, genetic and biological factors
families with an anorexic member seem to have... a more rigid family structure
families with a member who has bulimia seem to have... a less stable family organization
personality traits of anorexia nervosa exhibit increased rates of: OCD, perfectionism, socially inhibited, compliant, emotionally restrained
personality traits of bulimia nervosa exhibit increased rates of: impulse, low self esteem, extroverted, erratic personality that seeks attention and admiration
what is the probability of having an eating disorder if a family member has one several times higher
anorexia nervosa medical disorder in which unhealthful behaviors are used to maintain a body weight less than 85% of expected weight, 90-95% are young girls and women, 1% of US females will develop anorexia, 5-20% will die within 10 years of diagnosis
symptoms of anorexia nervosa extremely restrictive eating practices, self starvation, intense fear of weight gain, unhealthful body image, amenorrhea
amenorrhea no menstrual period for at least 3 months
health risks of anorexia nervosa electrolyte imbalance, cardiovascular problems, gastrointestinal problems, bone problems
bulimia nervosa eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging, affects 1-4% of women, female to male ratio of 1:6 and 1:10, 50% diagnosed with anorexia will also be diagnosed with bulimia, 1% die within 10 yrs of diagnosis
binge eating eating a large amount of food in a short period of time
purging the attempt to rid the body of unwanted food by: vomiting, laxatives, fasting for days (followed by binge), excess exercise,
symptoms of bulimia nervosa recurrent episodes of binge eating, recurrent behavior to compensate for binge eating, binge eating occurs on average, at least twice a week for three months, negative body image
health risks of bulimia nervosa electrolyte imbalance, gastrointestinal problems, dental problems, calluses on back of hands and knuckles from vomiting, swelling of the cheeks or jaw from vomiting
disordered eating comprised of a variety of unhealthy behaviors including binge eating, chronic overeating, chronic dieting (none last long enough to cause serious illness but can lead to eating disorders
symptoms of binge eating disorder often overweight, sense of lack of control during binging, chaotic eating behavior (eating too much, too fast, in private) negative self esteem and body image, often associated with depression substance and anxiety disorders
health risk of binge eating disorder increased risk of overweight or obesity, foods eaten during binging are often high in fats and sugars
night eating syndrome eat majority of energy between 8pm-6am, get up to eat, characterized by a depressed mood, health risk:obesity
chronic dieting symptoms preoccupation with food, weight, calories, strict dieting, excessive exercise, loss of concentration, mood swings, increased criticism of body shape
chronic dieting health risks poor nutrient and energy intake, decreased caloric intake causing inadequate vitamin and mineral intake, decreased energy expenditure due to a reduced basal metabolic rate, decreased ability to exercise, increased risk of psychiatric eating disorder
when is female athlete trio seen most often sports that use subjective scoring (dance, diving, skating, gymnastics, horse racing)
treatment for eating disorders successful treatment usually involves a team approach including: patient, physician, nutritional counselor, psychiatric counselor
treatment for anorexia nervosa restore healthy weight, treat complications, encourage healthful behaviors, correct dysfunctional feeling toward the eating disorder,enlist help of family and friends
treatment for bulimia nervosa identify and modify the events that trigger binging and purging behaviors, monitor and alter thought patters related to food and body, include help from friends and family
prevention of eating disorders requires reducing weight related criticism of children and young adults, identifying unrealistic body images in the media, participation in physical activity and sports, modeling a healthy diet by parents
Created by: 100000485564436