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HUC Body Structures

HUC Studies - Body Structures

10 major stystems of the body skeletal; muscular; nervous; endocrine; cardiovascular; lymphatic; respirator; digestive; urinary and reproductive
Skeletal System consists over the 206 bones in adult body; cartilage, ligaments and tendons.
cartilage strong, yet flexible support for skeleton
ligament band of fibrous tissue connecting bones or supporting organs
tendon cords of connective tissue that attach muscle to bone or other structure.
Function of Bones support and provide shape to body; protect internal organs; work with muscles to produce body movement; contain calcium.
Hematopoiesis production of blood cells, mostly takes place in the red marrow of the bones.
PA & LAT CXR Posterior/back to anterior/front and lateral/side view chest x-ray
CT of C1 to L5 Computerized tomography scan from the first cervical vertebra and the last lumbar vertebra
MRI of R femur Magnetic resonance imaging scan of right femur
C1-C7 Cervical (neck) region; 7 bones,
T1-T12 Thoracic (chest) region; 12 bones
L1-L5 Lumbar (loin or waist); 5 bones
S1-S5 Sacral (sacrum or lower back) region; 5 fused bones
Coccygeal coccyx or tailbone region; 4 fused bones
spinal column a long row of bones from the neck to the tailbone.
vertebra/vertebrae each bone in the spinal column
disk (disc) flexible connective tissue lies between each vertebra; composed of cartilage; cushion between bones.
stern/o sternum (breast bone)
pelv/o pelvis - made up of Ilium, Pubis, Ischium
femor/o femur - thigh bone
patell/o patella - knee cap
tibi/o Tibia - shin bone (front)
fibul/o, perone/o Fibula - bone behind/side of Tibia (shin bone)
tars/o Tarsals - ankle bones
metatars/o Metatarsals - long foot bones connecting to toes.
crani/o Cranium - skull
clavicul/o clavicle - collar bone
scapul/o Scapula - shoulder blade
cost/o Ribs
humer/o Humerus - upper arm bone
radi/o Radius - lower arm bone (thumb side)
uln/o Ulna - lower arm bone (pinkie finger side)
sacro/o Sacrum - lower back (5 fused bones above tail bone)
carp/o Carpais - wrist
metacarp/o metacarpals - long hand bones attach to fingers
phalang/o Phalanges - fingers and toes
Muscular System 650 + muscles; used for all body movement; give body shape and form.
Functions of Muscles system responsible for: all body movement, movement is voluntary; body shape and form, voluntary; body heat, involuntary
Aldolase enzyme that helps muscle turn sugar into energy. Tested to Dx and monitor skeletal muscle diseases.
Electromyography (EMG) electrical recording of muscle activity that aids in the Dx of neuromuscular disease.
Muscles of the head area frontalis, temporalis, orbicularis oculi, masseter, orbicularis oris, buccinator
Muscles of the neck area sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae and scalenes, platysma, trapezius,
muscles of the chest pectoralis major
muscles of the shoulder deltoid, trapezius (in back)
muscles of the abdomen serratus anterior, external oblique, rectus abdominus, linea alba
muscles of the arm biceps brachii and triceps brachii (upper arm), brachialis (inside of elbow), extensors of hand and flexors of hand and fingers (lower arm)
muscles of upper leg (thigh/femur area) Sartorius, adductors of thigh, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris (front); Adductor magnus, gracilis, Iliotibial tract, [biceps femoris, semitendinosus, Semimembranosus]-hamstring (back)
muscles of the booty gluteus masimus
muscles of the knee patella, patellar ligament (front), semimembranosus (back)
muscles of the lower leg (tibia/fibula) tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, soleus, gastrocnemius (front) Peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, soleus, calcaneal (Achilles) tendon, gastroncnemius (back)
Nervous System complex, organized system of nerve cells that starts, oversees and controls all the functions of the body. Command center for all mental activity. Consists of brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves and spinal nerves.
Lumbar puncture Needle puncture into the spinal canal to remove blood or fluid
VER Visual Evoked Response - to Dx visual losses due to optic nerve damage, especially from multiple sclerosis
AER Auditory evoked response - used to Dx hearing loss
BAER Brainstem auditory evoked responses - distinguish damage to the acoustic nerve which arries signals from the ear to the brainstem from damage to the auditory pathways within the brainstem.
EEG Electroencephalography - neurological test that measures the electrical signals the brain sends to the body
encephal/o brain
cerebr/o Cerebrum
cerebell/o cerebellum
medull/o medulla oblongata
myel/o Spinal cord
neur/o nerve
cervical plexus Nerves of the area of C1-C5
Brachial plexus Nevers of the area of C5-T1
Lumbar plexus Nerves of the area L1-L4
Sacral plexus Nerves of the area L4-S3
Endocrine System a group of glands that secrete substances (hormones) directly into the bloodstream. Pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thymus, pineal body, placenta
Hormones called chemical messengers b/c they are transported throughout body by bloodstream to targeted organs. Some hormones regulate release of other hormones. Act in response to nerve signals from target organ.
Cardiovascular System also called circulatory system; components of heart, arteries, veins and capillaries, blood and also the lymphatic system; is longest system of body; passes blood, oxygen and nutrients to body cells; takes carbon dioxide away from body cells.
Arteries blood carried away from heart by
Veins blood carried into heart by
Lymphatic System consists of lymph fluid, lymph vessels, lymph nodes and the spleen and thymus gland. Works with cardiovascular system b/c has no pump of its own. Function is to remove waste and excess fluids from tissues (Lymph)
Lymph a watery fluid formed in body tissues and circulated in the lymphatic vessels.
Respiratory System provides for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body and to produce sound from the larynx Consists of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, alveoli and lungs.
Digestive System a muscular tube, ~30 ft long; that extends from the mouth to anus; also called gastrointestinal system; consists of mouth, throat, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. Function: break down food both physically and chemically
Urinary System also known as excretory system; eliminates waste from the body.
Reproductive system also called the genital tract; function reproduce.
Males reproductive system testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory ducts, urethra, prostate gland, and penis
Female reproductive system ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, vulva and breasts