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HUC Studies lab

HUC Studies - Laboratory Orders

TermDefinition
WBC White Blood Count; counts white blood cells; often used to Dx infections; Hematology Department
VDRL Venereal Disease Research Liboratory - screening for syphilis, Serology
U/A Urinalysis
Trig Triglycerides, to identify some types of hyperlipidemia, also is one factor used to determine LDL cholesterol, Chemistry department
T4 Thyroxine, Chemistry Department
T3 Trilodothyronie Resin Uptake, Chemistry Department
TSH Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Chemistry Department
TIBC Total Iron Binding Capacity, to determine the blood's iron-binding capacity, which can be helpful in diagnosing anemia, cirrhosis of the liver, and some infections, Chemistry Department
TCT Thrombin Clotting Time, to monitor heparin therapy; Coagulation study; Hematology Department
TBG Thyroid Binding Globulin, Chemistry Department
SGOT Serum Glutamic-oxaloacetic, cardiac enzyme, to evaluate whether a heart attack has occurred, Chemical Department
RFP Renal Function Profile, Lab Panel includes, Albumin, BUN, Cl, phosphorus, Ca, Creat, CO2, K, glucose, Na
RBC Red Blood Count; Decreasing red blood cells may indicate anemia; increasing may indicate hypoxia due to a chronic condition; Hematology Department
RA / RA factor Rheumatoid Arthritis / RA factor - Specific test for rheumatoid arthritis, Serology Department
PTT Partial Thromboplastin Time, reported in seconds, % or INR (international normalized ratio) Demonstrates lack of any clotting factors except factor VIII; detects many bleeding disorders; monitors heparin therapy. Hematology Department
PT Prothrombin Time, reported as time in seconds or % or INR (international normalized ratio). Clotting ability of the blood; monitors oral anticoagulating therapy. Hematology Department
PSA Prostatic Specific Antigen, Determines the level of PSA in the body, which is used to diagnose prostate cancer and measure growth, Chemistry Department
PLT CT Platelet Count, Coagulation Study, The number of platelets; a certain number of platelets are needed for coagulation process. Hematology Department
O & P Ova and Parasites
NPO Nothing by Mouth
NH3 Ammonia, to measure liver function, Chemistry Department
Na Sodium, electrolyte, helps to maintain balance of water and acid in body, Chemistry department
Mg Magnesium, To measure the amt of magnesium in the blood, Chemistry Department
Lytes Electrolytes, Lab Panel, Includes Na (sodium), K (potassium), Cl (chloride) and HCO3 (bicarbonate). These elements help maintain the body balance of water and acid. Chemistry Department
LH Luteinizing Hormone, Chemistry Department
LDL Low Density Lipoprotein, Cardiac enzyme, to evaluate whether a heart attack has occurred, Chemistry Department
LDH Lactic Dehydrogenase
K Potassium, an electrolyte that helps maintain balance of water to acid in body, Chemistry department
Iso's Isoenzymes, determines the variations in the enzymes responsible for an elevation in enzymes such as LDH, CK, and CPK, Chemistry Department
INR International Normalized Ratio
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus - specific test to test for the virus that causes AIDS, Serology Department
Hgb Hemoglobin, To assess the amt of iron in the blood; Dx anemia; Hematology Department
HEPF Hepatic Function, panel of tests include Albumin, Alk Phos, ALT, AST
HDL High-Density Lipoprotein, To measure "good" cholesterol in blood, Chemistry Department
Hct Hematocrit, to assess blood loss, Hematology Department
HCO3 Bicarbonate, an electrolyte that helps maintain balance of water to acid in body, Chemistry department
hCG Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Pregnancy Test. Requires collection of first morning void of urine.
HBsAG Hepatitis B Surface Antigen - test used to determine hepatitis B, Serology Department
HbA1c, HgbA1C Glycosylated Hemoglobin, provides a picture of the glucose on the red blood cells for the past 3 months, Chemistry Department
GTT Glucose tolerance test, to determine the amt of sugar in the blood drawn at timed intervals. Pt is required to drink specific amt of glucose soln. Test looks for changes in glucose metabolism. Chemistry Department
FSH Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, Chemistry Department
Fib Fibrinogen Level, (Coagulation Study) the fibrinogen level of the blood; low levels may indicate rare genetic disorders or sever liver disease. Hematology Department
Fe Iron, to measure the amt of iron in blood. Chemistry
FBS Fasting Blood Sugar, A fasting test to determine the amount of sugar in the blood, Chemistry Department
EDTA Ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid
Diff Differential- to test which of the five types of white blood cells is increasing or decreasing, Hematology Department
C & S Culture and Sensitivity- can be performed on any specimen in culture medium to check for bacterial growth. Growth takes abt 24 hours, species of bacteria is identified. Id takes 24 hrs-10 days. Sensitivity to id antibiotics effective in treating bacteria.
Creat Creatinine, serum creatinine, serum or urine test to diagnose renal disfunction
CPK Creatine phosphokinase, cardiac enzyme, to evaluate whether a heart attack has occurred, also to measure release of enzyme Chemistry Department
COR Coronary Risk (lipid profile), Lab Panel includes Chol, LDL, Trig, HDL (Ca), Chol/HDL Ratio
CO2 Carbon Dioxide
CMP Comprehensive Metabolic Panel, Lab Panel, includes Albumin, bili total, Ca, Na, Alk Phos, K, protein total, BUN/Creat, AST, CO2, ALT, Cl, glucose
Cl Chloride, an electrolyte that helps maintain the balance of water to acid in body. Chemistry Department.
CK Creatine kinase, cardiac enzyme, to evaluate whether a heart attack has occurred, also to measure release of enzyme, Chemical Department
Chol Cholesterol, to measure function of liver, Chemistry Department
CSF Cerebrospinal Fluid
CEA Carcinoembryonic antigen - elevated titer indicates liver, colon or pancreas cancer, Serology Department
CC Colony Count - performed on urine sample to measure amt of bacteria present. Must be a clean catch midstream. Pt collects, nurse may assist or cath used.
CBC Complete Blood Count; Lap Panel, Includes Hgb, Hct, WBC, RBC, Diff; Hematology Department
Ca Calcium, to measure amt of Ca in blood, Chemistry Department
BUN Blood Urea Nitrogen, to evaluate kidney function, Chemistry department
BS Blood Sugar
BMP Basic Metabolic Panel, Panel of test including Carbon dioxide (CO2), Cl, Creat, glucose, Ca, BUN, K, Na, Anion gap,
Billi Bilirubin, to measure liver function, Chemistry Department
AST Aspartate Transaminase, cardiac enzyme, To evaluate whether a heart attack has occurred, Chemistry Department
ASO / ASO titer Antistreptolysin O / ASO titer - elevated titer indicates presence of streptococcal infection, Serology Department
ANA Antinuclear Antibody - Determines presence of autoimmune diseases, Serology Department
ALT Alanine Aminotransferase
Alk Phos Alkaline Phosphatase, To evaluate bone and liver disease, Chemistry Department
AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
AHEPP Acute Hepatitis (Hepatitis Profile) Lab Panel includes Hepatitis A antigen, HBA, hepatitis B core antibody, hepatitis C antibody
AGAP Anion Gap
AFB Acid-Fast Bacilli - culture performed on sputum. To id acid-fast bacilli which may cause tuberculosis.
ACTH Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, Chemistry Department
Acid Phos Acid Phosphatase, to diagnose metastatic cancers, Chemistry Department
laboratory provides testing to help health care professionals diagnose and evaluate patient health conditions. Maybe within facility or a private business.
HUC communicates frequently with laboratory 1. ordering laboratory tests 2. receiving the results.
For every laboratory test that is order, HUC needs to know 1. the type of specimen that is needed 2. who will collect the specimen 3. if a consent is required 4. in what type of container the specimen will be transported
point-of-care stations set up with basic laboratory testing equipment to provide test results quickly so that the health care team can use the results to plan the care of the patient.
specimen collection The type of specimen required depends on the test requested. Common types of specimens collected include blood, urine, stool and tissue.
transport medium a broad term used to describe what the specimen will be placed in to be sent to the laboratory. It is the container in which the specimen is collected and delivered to the lab.
examples of transport medium culture bottles, culturettes, dipstick containers, jars, petri dishes, plastic bags, slides, tubes, vials
Most common type of specimens collected blood samples
phlebotomist laboratory staff person who draws the patient blood samples
blood samples maybe obtained : venipuncture, capillary puncture or arterial puncture or central venous line
Venipuncture: Colored tops added to blood tubes tell what is added to the specimen. Red: nothing added Red and black: silicone gel added Green: heparin added Lavender:EDTA added Blue: sodium citrate added Gray: glycolytic inhibitor (oxalate and fluoride) added
Capillary Puncture The skin is punctured to draw blood. Heel, toe, finger is used. Common way to draw from infants or for glucose level monitor.
arterial blood sample requires special skills and may be performed by the physician or a respiratory therapist
central venous line is a catheter or tube inserted through the subclavian vein
Timed Blood Specimens 1. collected randomly or at a specific times 2. affected by food or fluid intake
postprandial after meals
Timed Blood Specimens Examples blood glucose and cholesterol tests, patients may have to fast or NPO (nothing by mouth) before the test. If fasting, NPO after midnight.
Peak and Trough levels How specific medication is being absorbed by patient. Blood collected before medication administered is trough. Blood collected after medication is given is called peak. Peak and trough with antibiotics: Gentamycin or Tobramycin.
Absorption tests performed to measure how pt absorbs specific chems. Lactose tolerance test Dx carbohydrate malabsorbtion; D-Xylose test indirect measure intestinal absorption; glucose tol test study carb metabolism. Pt injest chem & have timed blood specimens collected.
Stool Specimens collected by nursing staff placed in sealed, labeled container sent to lab. May need to be to lab in specific time. HUC may take.
Urine Specimens nursing staff or patient care staff instructs pt how to collect. Pt urinates in container. Staff collects urine from container & puts in proper container for transport to lab. Some can go in pneumatic tube. Amt req, container & what added varies w/ test.
Timed Urine Specimens Most is randomly voided spec. Some req spec. to be collected @ certain time or certain length of time. I.e. pregnancy test and 24 hr specimen collection. Preg test (hcg) usual req 1st morning void. Creatinine clearance req urine be coll & saved for 24 hrs
24-Hour Urine Collections All urine voiced in 24 hr period is collected in a container labeled as such. Nursing staff collects specimens; HUC requests test. Does not request test until collection is complete. Some test req. an additive. If so HUC request container first.
Tissue Specimens Physician usually collects tissue specimens from patients in pt room, OR, or endoscopy dept. Tissue can be coll. during evasive procedure or by scraping in treatment room. Size of spec depends on test.
Specimen Collection Department Dept of Lab. To obtain and process all the specimens that arrive in the laboratory for testing. Where HUC delivers specimens.Routes properly id specs to correct dept for processing
Labeling Specimens All specimens must be correctly labeled with correct pt info and test being requested.
Microbiology Department Dept in Lab responsible for identifying organisms. Performs tests on blood, stool, urine, sputum, vaginal smears, drainage from wounds, nose and throat specimens.
culture medium a special substance that the specimen is placed upon or into allow bacteria to grow and multiply
Gram stain (microbiology - bacteriology test) may be performed on many types of specimens. Classifies bacteria as gram negative or gram positive. Available before C&S results, dr can order appropriate gram(-) or gram(+) antibiotic.
Blood Cultures often order on pt when dr suspects septicemia (bacterial infection of bloodstream) as "blood cultures 10 min apart from 2 diff sites" Venipuncture or arterial line
Microbiology Department Divisions Bacteriology, Parasitology, Mycology, Virology
Bacteriology Division of Microbiology:The study of bacteria that cause disease, Example test: Gram stain
Parasitology Division of Microbiology:The study of parasites that cause disease, Example Test: Stool specimen for O&P (ova and parasites)
Mycology Division of Microbiology:The study of fungi that cause diseases, Example Test: Test to determine if fungi present
Virology Division of Microbiology:The study of viruses that cause diseases, Example test: virus cultures
Serology Department is responsible for the testing of specimens that produce a recordable reaction between an antibody and an antigen. Tests provide supporting info ie previous infection, exposure to organism. Often with transplant pts, RA, HIV, some influenza.
Antigen any substance that triggers an immune response.
Antibody the body's response to a foreign substance. Are produced to fight the specific foreign substance.
Cytology Department the study of cells. Cells can be from body fluid or tissue. Determine cell type and if pre-cancer or cancer exists. Pap smear and biopsy is common.
Pap smear can be performed on any cells for presence of cancer; most often as tool for cervical cancer. Uses a staining method on cells from cervix collected during pelvic exam. Cytology
biopsy specimen collected by dr; sent to cytology. Hand delivered.
Chemistry Department performs test to determine chemical changes in body fluids. Chem change from normal indicates disease process. Can be done on Blood, urine. Dr to indicate. May require pt fast NPO 8-10 hours before test. Heart disease, diabetes, infections, hypertension
Cortisol test from Chemistry Department
Folate test from Chemistry Department
Schilling Test test from Chemistry Department
Urine glucose Test used to determine amt of glucose in urine. Often ordered in addition to serum glucose. Chemistry Department
Amylase Test to evaluate acute pancreatitis, Chemistry Department
troponin cardiac enzyme, test to evaluate whether a heart attack has occurred.
Uric acid test used to diagnose gout, Chemistry department
Urine creatinine A test used to determine the amt of creatinine in the urine. may be ordered alone or with a serum creatinine. Elevated creatinine may indicate kidney problems. Chemistry Department
Urine protein A test ordered to determine the amt of protein in the urine. Elevated protein in urine may indicate urinary system problems including the prostate gland. Chemistry department
Urine osmolality A test ordered to determin ethe kidney's ability to dilute and concentrate. Chemistry Department
Lab panel Test groupings that can be ordered as one request. May be built to meet the insurance provider's requirements. May be nationwide and may have been created to provide needed results at best possible price.
Hematology Department Study of the blood cells, coagulation and bleeding disorders. Usually performed on serum specimens, but can on spinal fluid and bone marrow. Performed by automatic counters (hematology analyzers) for accuracy rather than manual under microscope.
Coagulation tests performed in hematology department; provide info on the clotting ability of blood. 12 factors are involved in clotting process, not all necessary for clotting. Pt may be at risk for a bleeding problem or for a thrombus to form. May take meds to thin blood
Urinalysis Department processes the tests requested on urine specimens. Urine is tested for color, clarity, pH, specific gravity, protein, glucose, blood, bilirubin, urobilinogen, sediment
Urine color how dark it appears, based on a specific color wheel
Urine clarity How clear or cloudy the specimen appears
Urine pH The acidity or alkalinity
Urine Specific gravity Concentration level
Clotting Time Tests the length of time it takes for blood to clot; Hematology Department
Urine Protein The amt of protein (albumin) in the urine
Urine Glucose amt of sugar in urine
Urine Blood amt of blood in urine
Urine Bilirubin amt of bilirubin in urine
Urine Urobilinogen amt of urobilinogen in urine
Urine Sediment Evaluating the sediment in the urine to detect organisms, intact cells and crystals.
Urine test collection Processes Random, Voided; Clean catch midstream, catheterized
Random Urine specimen no specific time or collection type requested
Voided Urine specimen no specific time; voided specimen requested
Clean catch midstream Urine specimen No specific time; midstream specimen requested; following defined cleaning procedure, specimen is collected in the middle of the voiding process.
Catheterized Urine specimen no specific time; urine specimen is collected using catheter
Blood Bank Department also called transfusion services; provide the blood and blood products to the pt for transfusion. Dr. will order transfuse blood products; may be written as type and cross-match require a draw of blood to check for type.
Blood types A, B, AB and O. positives or negatives
Blood cross-match pt blood same is tested to make sure it is compatible with the blood that will be transfused to see if any clumping occurs. Clumping indicates non compatibility
Blood transfusion process Dr request sent to lab. Lab will check to see if pt typed & x-matched in timeframe; Blood bank will prepare blood product to be infused & send to pt care unit. When it arrives HUC notify nurse responsible for transfusion. Nurse must be notified stat.
Donor services Department department of laboratory that collects blood from donors. Easily accessible by public. Conducts blood drives. Collected blood sent to transfusion service department where it is processed to be provided to pt when ordered by Dr.
Albumin Blood Component:Reason: shock, low blood volume; electrolyte imbalance, low protein
Whole Blood Blood Component: Reason: to restore blood volume; could be decreased because of hemorrhage or trauma
Erythrocytes Blood Component: Reason: To restore red blood cell count
Immunogloblin Blood Component: Reason: To provide globulin when there is a deficiency
Leukocytes Blood Component: Reason: to aid in treating infections; restore cells damaged by chemotherapy
Plasma Blood Component; Reason: Increases blood volume; used to treat blood-clotting deficiency; may be used to treat hepatitis
Platelets Blood Component; Reason: Used to treat blood-clotting deficiency
autologous blood donation where pt donates his own blood for a planned surgery.
Pathology Department Often department within Laboratory. Study of disease. Interpret results of laboratory tests for the attending physicians.
Order: CBC today Routine time request; Next time the laboratory makes a routine run to the unit they will draw the specimen for Complete Blood Count. The lab makes a run every 2 hours to the surgical unit.
Order: CBC in AM AM time request: Test needs to be ordered for the morning of the next day. Lab draws the AM lab specimens on the surgical unit at 6a.m.
Order: CBC now Stat! Lab would go to the surgical unit and draw the specimen as soon as possible after receiving request.
Order: CBC at 11 am Specimen to be drawn at time requested 11 am
Order: CBC Unknown time: the HUC would ask Dr at what time the test should be ordered.
Receiving Lab Results Lab reports must be attached to the correct patient chart. May be paper ore electronic reports.
Transcription Steps: 1. Read the entire order set thoroughly Careful reading of the orders allows HUC to review, prioritize, and check for incomplete or illegible orders.
Transcription Steps: 2. Prioritize orders Determin the urgency of the orders within all the charts needing transcription. Decide what orders in the order set need to be transcribed first. A patient who has laboratory orders stat and in the a.m. should have the stat orders transcribed right away.
Transcription Steps: 3. If medications are included in the order set, send the order carbon or copy to the pharmacy. This step maybe omitted for lab orders. However, IV fluids are needed to transfuse certain blood products; these fluids may be stocked in the pharmacy.
Transcription Steps: 4 Communicate the order to the individual or department that will be performing order. The HUC will communicate laboratory orders to the laboratory department and to the patient care staff responsible for the patient.
Transcription Steps: 5. Record the orders on the patient Kardex or care plan. Record the lab order as written from the physician's order form to the patient Kardex, care plan, and/or lab board.
Transcription Steps:6. Record medication orders on the medication administration record. (MAR) This step may be omitted for lab orders except for transfusion orders. Transfusion orders are usually recorded on the MAR.
Transcription Steps: 7. Check off each order in the set as completed. Placing a check mark by each order as it is transcribed can help the HUC track orders even when interrupted.
Transcription Steps: 8. Re-read and check all work for accuracy. Because of multiple requests received by the HUC, re-reading and checking work is a necessity.
Transcription Steps: 9. Sign off the order with name, title, date, and time. the health unit coordinator is accountable for the orders transcribed.