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HNES Exam 2

Wellness Exam 2

Name the different nutritional guidelines. Estimated Average Requirement, Recommended Dietary Allowance, Adequate Intake, & Tolerable Upper Intake Level
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) Amount of nutrients needed by half of the people in any one age group; deciphers population'd diet.
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) Average daily amount of a single nutrient that one needs to protect against nutritional deficiency (determined by EAR).
Adequate Intake (AI) Not enough information to seat an RDA.
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) Highest level of a nutrient one can consume without risk of toxicity.
Energy Density The amount of energy in a food per unit of weight.
Nutrient Density The amount of nutrients per total calories in food.
Discretionary Calories Calories left over after you have met your nutrient goal by eating nutrient dense foods from all food groups.
What are the six essential nutrients? Proteins, Carbohydrates, Fats, Water, Vitamins, & Minerals
Which nutrients are Macronutrients? Proteins, Carbohydrates, Fats, & Water.
Which nutrients are Micronutrients? Vitamins & Water
What is the main function of Protein? Structural components: skin, muscles, organs, and glands.
What is the main function of Carbohydrates? #1 source of neurologic energy. Fuels high-intensity activities.
What is the main function of Fats? Principle form of stored energy. Insulates the body, supports and cushions organs, absorb fat-soluble vitamins, add flavor and texture to foods.
What is the main function of Water? Digest, absorb, transport nutrients. Regulate body temperature. Carries waste products out of the body.
What is the main function of Vitamins? Catalyst for releasing energy. Aid in chemical reactions. Help maintain immune, nervous, and skeletal systems.
What is the main function of Minerals? Build strong bones and teeth. Assist in carrying out metabolic processes. Maintain proper functioning of most body systems.
Which of the essential nutrients supply energy? How much do each supply? Carbohydrates & Protein. 4 calories/gram; fat = 9 calories/gram
Name the two different types of fats. Saturated & Unsaturated.
Give an example of a saturated fat. Trans-fats: partially vs. fully.
Give an example of unsaturated fats. Monosaturated (good fats) & Polyunsaturated (Omega 3 & 6).
RDA for fiber for men. 38 grams/day.
RDA for fiber for women. 25 grams/day.
Insoluble fiber: Feeling of fullness; natural laxative.
Soluble fiber: Lowers blood cholesterol; maintains blood glucose levels.
Complete Proteins: Meat sources.
Incomplete Proteins: Plant sources.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) Number of calories needed at rest.
Portion Size: Amount of food eaten at one time.
Serving Size: Amount of food listed on the Nutrition Facts.
What should you look for on a nutrition label? Serving Size, Calories from Fat, Nutrients, Daily Value Percentage, & The Daily Value.
What are some of the consumer concerns? Food Allergies/Intolerance's, High-Sodium/Fast Food, Energy Drinks/Food, Consumption of Sugar.
How does the book define Organic? Plant foods that are grown without synthetic pesticides or fertilizers, and animal foods that come from animals raised on organic feed without antibiotics or growth hormones.
Physical Activity: Any movement of the body.
Exercise: Structured, planned.
Physical Fitness: Set of attributes - related to health, performance and/or other activities.
What are the Physical Activity Guidelines for children? 60+ minutes/day of moderate-vigorous. 3+ days of vigorous. 3+ days of bone/muscle strengthening.
What are the Physical Activity Guidelines for adults? 150 minutes/week moderate-vigorous; or 75 minutes/week vigorous (at least 10 minute episodes). 300 minutes/week moderate-vigorous; or 150 minutes/week vigorous. Muscle strengthening 2+ days/week. Flexibility training 2-3 day/week.
Baseline: Activities of daily life; light intensity.
Skill-Related: Components/attributes influence performance level - less related to health.
Health Enhancing: Direct effect on health status, disease risk, and day-to-day functioning.
Aspects of health-enhancing activities: Cardiorespiratory endurance, Muscle strength, Muscle endurance, Flexibility,Body Composition.
Cardiorespiratory Endurance: Circulatory + respiratory systems = sustained physical activity. Prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise.
Muscle Strength: Ability of muscle(s) to generate force.
Muscle Endurance: Sustain effort via continuous/repeated exertion (Yoga)
Flexibility: Ability to joint to move through its range of motion (ROM).
Body Composition: Non-performance metric. Fat mass vs. fat-free mass.
Describe the Principles of Training Progressive Overload, Interval Training, Circuit Training, Cross Training, Recovery, Specificity, Individuality, Reversibility.
FITT: Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type.
Body Weight: Mass of an organism's body.
Body Composition: Body's relative amounts of fat mass and fat-free mass.
3 factors related to a healthy body weight. Acceptable BMI. Fat distribution not a risk for illness. Absence of medical conditions suggesting need for weight loss/gain.
Factors that affect body composition: Genetics, Gender, Age, Metabolism, Fat Cells.
Set Point Theory: Brain regulates body weight around a genetically predetermined level or "set point"
BMI classifications: Waist Circumference & Waist-to-hip ratios.
How much essential fat do men need? 3-5% of total body weight.
How much essential fat do women need? 8-12% of total body weight.
Subcutaneous Fat: Adipose tissue.
Visceral Fat: Intra-abdominal fat.
Apple-shaped fat distribution Fat stored in the abdominal region (generally males).
Pear-shaped fat distribution Fat stored in the hip, thighs, buttocks (generally females).
Body Fat Percentage Criterion for Men: 12-20%; 21-25%; >25%
Body Fat Percentage Criterion for Women: 20-30%; 31-33%; >33%
Body Image: Mental representation that a person has of his or her own body, including perceptions, attitudes, thoughts, and emotions.
Calorie Restriction: A reduction in calorie intake below daily needs.
Muscle Dysmorphia: A person perceives his/her body to be underdeveloped despite their highly developed muscles.
Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Preoccupation with imagined/exaggerated defect in appearance.
Disordered Eating: Abnormal eating patterns (e.g., vomiting, use of laxatives, extreme dieting) that may not it the rigid diagnostic rules for anorexia or bulimia but affect quality of life.
Eating Disorder: Conditions characterized by severely disturbed eating behaviors and distorted body image; jeopardizes physical and psychological health.
Different types of eating disorders: Anorexia, Bulimia, Binge-Eating Disorder.
Anorexia: Fear of gaining weight, disturbance/denial, amenorrhea.
Bulimia: Binging/purging 2x a week for 3 months; vomiting, laxatives, excessive exercise, etc.
Binge-Eating Disorder: Binging without purging, 2x a week for 6 months
Female athlete triad: Disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis.
Created by: klein-andrew