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NUT: Fats


Structure of Fat 3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol
De-esterfication Release of fatty acids from glycerol
Re-esterfication Adding fatty acids back to glycerol
Long Chain 12 or more carbon atoms
Where are long chain carbons found? Beef, pork, lamb, plant oils
Medium Chain 6-10 Carbon atoms
Where are medium chain carbons found? Coconut and palm kernel oils
Short Chain Less than 6 carbon atoms
Where are short chain carbons found? Butter, Whole milk, Fat in dairy
What type of ends are found in every fat? Methyl and Carboxyl
# of C-C bonds in saturated fatty acid 0
# of C-C bonds in monounsaturated fatty acid 1
# of C-C bonds in in polyunsaturated fatty acids 2
Shape of trans fat straight carbon chain
Shape of unsaturated fat bent carbon chain
Hydrogenation adding of hydrogen to carbon chain of an unsaturated fat.
Omega System Indicates where the first double bond closest to the methyl end is
Essential Fatty Acids Alpha-linoleic, linoleic, eicosanoids
Function of Fats Provide Energy, Compact Storage Energy, Insulate/Protect Body, Aid in Fat Soluble Vitamin Absorption/Transport
Role of Phospholipids Cell membrane component and emulsifier
Emulsifier compound that forms a shell around fat droplets so that the droplets can be suspended in water and do not clump together
Sterol Carbons arranged in rings
Functions of Sterol Cholesterol, Make steroids, bile, cell membranes
Sources of Sterol Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy
___ of our cholesterol comes from the food we eat 1/3
How much cholesterol does our bodies produce a day 875mg
How much cholesterol do we eat a day? 325mg
Recommended fat intake 20-35% of total calorie intake
What can happen is fat intake is too low? Compromise fatty acids and vitamin E
Mediterranean Diet - foods eaten Olive oil, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans, nuts, and seeds
Mediterranean Diet - foods limited Cheese, yogurt, eggs, red meat
Essential Fatty Acid Needs for Women 120 kcals /day
Essential Fatty Acid Needs for Men 170 kcals / day
Main contributor to saturated fat Dairy products
Main contributor to polyunsaturated fats Vegetable Oils
What institute recommends fish oil supplements The National Institute of Health
Parts involved in Digestion of Fat Mouth, Stomach, Liver, Pancreas, Small Intestine, Large Intestine
Mouth: Lingual Lipase Little to no fat is digested
Stomach: Gastric Lipase Little fat is digested
Liver: Bile Emulsifies fat
Pancreas: Pancreatic Lipase Digests fat
Fat Soluble Vitamins A, D, E, K
Lipoproteins carry fat through the blood
Chylomicrons fats that are re-formed in cells of the intestine and packaged together with other lipids -> lipoproteins
VLDL Carries lipids both taken up and made by the liver to cells
LDL carries cholesterol to cells
HDL helps remove cholesterol from cells
High Polyunsaturated Fat Intake 10% increase of developing heart disease
Excessive Omega-3 Intake impair immune system, uncontrolled bleeding
High Trans Fat Diets Lower HDL, Increase body weight, increase inflammation
High in Total Fat Diets Increase risk for obesity, increase colon, breast, and prostate cancers, increase LDL
Created by: cruseb1