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NUT: Carbs

Carbs

TermDefinition
Families of Carbs Sugar, Starch, Fiber
Carbs are mainly made of... Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
Monosaccarides Glucose, Fructose, Galactose, Pentoses
Most abundant monosaccaride Glucose
Monosaccaride found in fruits, vegetables, and honey Fructose
Accounts for 9-11% of American Diet Fructose
Found in milk and other dairy products Galactose
Found in combination with Glucose = Lactose Galactose
DNA and RNA monosaccaride Pentose
Disaccarides Maltose, Sucrose, Lactose
Alpha bond of two glucose's found in beer Maltose
Glucose and fructose alpha bonded to make common table sugar Sucrose
Glucose and Galactose by beta bond - primary sugar in milk Lactose
Oligosaccarides Raffinose, Stachyose
3 monosaccarides Raffinose
4 monosaccarides Stachyose
___% of your diet is carbs 45-65%
Body prefers this macronutrient for energy Carbs
RDA for carbs 130g/day
Polysaccarides Starch, Glycogen, Fiber
Digestible polysaccarides (alpha) Starch and Glycogen
Indigestible polysaccaride (beta) Fiber
What polysaccharide is lost during slaughter Glycogen
How many kcal's of Glycogen are in the liver? 360
How many kcal's of Glycogen are in the muscle? 1200
4 Types of Fiber Dietary, Functional, Insoluble, Soluble
RDI for Fiber 14g/1000 kcals
Where is starch found? Legumes, Tubers, Grains
Where is fiber found? Grains, Legumes, Tubers
Benefits of Fiber Cardiovascular health, weight management, intestinal health
Fiber has what effect on carbs? Slows down digestion
How much energy do north americans get from their carbs? 50%
Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend limiting added sugars to what % total energy intake 6%
Added sugar account for ___% of carb intake 16%
Functions of Carbs Provide Energy, Preventing Ketosis
Ketosis Insulin production decreases
Functions of Fiber Promote Bowel Health, Reduce Risk Obesity, Enhance Blood Glucose Control, Reduce Cholesterol Absorption
Salivary amylase breaks down starch
Very high fiber diets dry stool, decreased absorption, reduce overall food intake,
High Sugar Diets Compromise bone development, increase risk of weight gain, heart disease, cavities
Symptoms of Lactose Intolerance Bloating, Gas, Diarrhea
___% of the worlds population is lactose intolerant 75%
Hyperglycemia FBS > 126
Hypoglycemia FBS < 50
High FBS levels can cause Cytoacidosis
Cytoacidosis insufficient use of fatty acids
When it comes to FBS, the Liver... Controls the amount of glucose in the bloodstream
The Pancreas releases Insulin
Glycemic Index Ratio of blood glucose response to a given food compared with a standard
Glycemic Load Accounts for carb intake and the glycemic index
Created by: cruseb1