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Nutrition Midterm

How much daily fiber does a woman need? A man? 25 grams; 38 grams
Synthetic Vitamin A supplementation should be limited to ________ IU/day. 5000 IU/day
What fat soluble vitamin deficiency is possibly linked to an increased risk of colorectal and breast cancer? Vitamin D
What is the current RDA for Vitamin D? What does it increase to in the winter? 400-800 IU; 5000 IU
What form of Vitamin E is the only form that's actively maintained in the body? Alpha tocopherol
What could toxicity of Alpha tocopherol lead to? Damage to cardiac cells
What functions in the body does Vitamin K support? Bone metabolism and blood coagulation
What are signs and symptoms of Vitamin K deficiency? (4) 1. Tendency to prolonged bleeding 2. Easy bruising 3. Impaired bone remodeling/mineralization 4. Small amount of blood in the stool
Large doses of which vitamin can cause dilation of capillaries, resulting in red skin (i.e.: flush)? Vitamin B3 - Niacin
What is the name for Vitamin B1? What functions does it support in the body? Thiamin; Energy metabolism, nervous system, protein synthesis
What is the name for Vitamin B2? What functions does it support in the body? Riboflavin; Energy production and antioxidant action
What is the name for Vitamin B3? What functions does it support in the body? Niacin; Cellular metabolism, DNA replication/repair, antioxidant functions, blood sugar regulation, fat/cholesterol metabolism
What functions does Vitamin B6 support in the body? Protein synthesis, maintenance of normal BGL, Niacin (B3) formation, lipid metabolism, RBC function, and neurotransmitter synthesis
What are the "3 D's" of Niacin (B3) deficiency? Diarrhea, Dementia, and Dermatitis
What is the name for Vitamin B5? What functions does it support in the body? Panthothenic Acid; Energy production, fatty acid synthesis, protein & amino acid synthesis, and acetylcholine formation
What is the name for Vitamin B9? What two aspects is it important for in the body? Folic Acid; Neural tube development in the fetus, DNA synthesis and repair
What type of deficiency is folic acid deficiency often seen with? B12 deficiency
What functions is B12 responsible for in the body? Breaks down amino acids, fats, and supports thyroid function
To what can a B12 deficiency lead? Pernicious anemia (may initially present as fatigue) and numbness/tingling of the extremities
Which vitamins are needed for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine? B6, B9, and B12
For what functions in the body is biotin important? Cell division and growth
For what functions in the body is Vitamin C important? Capillary strength, collagen production, and hormone (especially adrenal) regulation
Which medications often cause Vitamin C deficiency? Aspirin and oral contraceptives
Patient's currently taking what type of medication should NOT supplement with Vitamin K? Why? Blood thinners (Warfarin (Coumadin), Heparin); Vitamin K is responsible for supporting the function of blood coagulation
For what functions is Calcium used in the body? Skeletal, muscular, nervous and immune support
What foods can cause Calcium deficiency? Caffeine, alcohol, protein and fiber
What other mineral inhibits the absorption of calcium in high levels? Phosphorus
A 26 year old female presents to your office with a chief complaint of migraine headaches, mild to moderate dymenorrhea (pain associated with menses) and fatigue. What mineral supplementation would you recommend and why? Magnesium. It's a vasodilator and muscle relaxant, so it will help dilate vessels in the brain to alleviate headache and relax the muscles of the uterus to alleviate menstrual cramps
The body's reserve of Vitamin D is ____________________ (what form?). Optimal functioning of the ____________ (what organ systems?) systems is necessary to convert to the active form.
Insulin resistance may indicate the need for which mineral? Chromium
If a patient with fatigue also complains of chronic heartburn and has a possible gastric ulcer, in which mineral could he be deficient? Iron
What can a high level of extracellular fluid (swelling) indicate? Potassium (K+) deficiency
What can electrolyte toxicity cause? Cardiac disturbances
For what functions in the body is Zinc responsible? Immune system function, wound healing, thyroide and endocrine function, DNA synthesis and skin oil gland production
What functions does iron support? Hemoglobin function, immune system function, and collagen support
For which types of repair is selenium necessary? Glutathione (antioxidant) and Vitamin E repair
Which mineral is important for muscle systems and ligament and collagen health? Manganese
Patients who have the disease PKU are lacking an enzyme to breakdown which amino acid? Phenylalanine; The patient lacks phenylalanine hydroxylase, which breaks phenylalanine down into tyrosine
The amino acid tyrosine and the mineral iodine are necessary for the health of which organ? Thyroid
Which amino acids are branched chain? L-Valine, L-Leucine and L-Isoleucine
What are the receptors in the stomach that secrete stomach acid in response to histamine called? Parietal cells
What sulfur containing amino acid donates a methyl group for the creation of epinephrine, carnitine, choline and creatinine in the body? L-Methionine
If serotonin levels are too low, what symptoms may present? Irritability, worry, and constipation
If serotonin levels are too high, what symptoms may present? Anxiety, panic attacks, diarrhea
Which amino acid is the primary fuel for intestinal mucosa? L-Glutamic Acid/Glutamate
Which amino acid produces Histamine? Histadine
Into what two neurotransmitters is L-Glutamic Acid broken down? Glutamate (excitatory) and GABA (inhibitory)
Which mineral inhibits NMDA - glutamate receptors? Magnesium
Which neurotransmitter does Serine produce? Acetylcholine
Which amino acids help with RBC synthesis? Valine and Isoleucine
Which amino acid is a part of bile acid? Taurine
Which three amino acids require Vitamin C to produce collagen? Glycerine, Proline and Hydroxyproline
During what body response is bradykinin released? Tissue damage
How does Glutathione function as an antioxidant? It helps recycle the free radical capacity
With which vitamins and minerals are glutathione levels maintained? Vitamins B2, B3, and E and Selenium
Which compound transports long fatty acid chains into mitochondria? Of which amino acid is it composed? Carnitine; 3 lysines link together
What does creatine do? It helps turn on and off the ATP/ADP conversion
What four compounds are known as endorphins? Serotonin, melatonin, dopamine and norepinephrine
Created by: eippolito