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PHC 6000m

Introduction to epidemiology

How are prevalence and incidence related? If a population is steady, prevalence = incidence x time
What is the difference between cumulative incidence and incidence density (also called incidence rate)?
What is the difference between incidence density and incidence rate? They are the same
What is another phrase for incidence rate? Incidence density
Describe a scenario in which only one or two cases of disease may represent an epidemic.
Which is more important in clinical medicine: sensitivity or specificity? Sensitivity
Which is more important in public health: sensitivity or specificity? Specificity
Which approach to medicine is more concerned about treatment of patient? Clinical medicine
Which approach to medicine is more concerned about causation and etiopathogenesis? Public health
Incidence or prevalence: Number of campers who developed gastroenteritis within 24 hours after eating potato salad at the dining hall. Incidence
Incidence or prevalence: Number of persons who reported having hypertension as part of National Health Interview Survey. Prevalence
Incidence or prevalence: Occurrence of Acute Myocardial Infarction in participants during the first 10 years of follow-up in Framingham heart study. Prevalence
What type of trial is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a substance (such as vaccine) or a prevention program (such as vitamin supplementation) that is used to prevent a disease? Prophylactic
What type of trial involves the study of curative drugs or a new surgical procedure to evaluate how well they bring about an improvement in a patient's health? Therapeutic
What are the four stages of evaluation? Formative, process, outcome, and impact
What type of evaluation measures 'whatever changes the program creates in the target population's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, or behavior'? Impact
What type of treatment refers to, 'whatever changes of treatment for a patient in a clinical trial involving a switch of study treatments.' Cross-over
What is a planned experiment designed to assess the efficacy of a treatment in man by comparing the outcomes in a group of patients treated with test treatment with those observed in a comparable group of patients receiving control treatment? Clinical trial
To reduce the likelihood of biased assessment, which design technique is used? Double blinding; neither the subject nor the researcher is aware of group assignment
Which aspect of study design describes wherein the subject is not aware of his/her group assignment of placebo or treatment? Blinding
What does blinding seek to alleviate? Bias in study results
What is the difference between an RCT and quasi-experiment? In an RCT, population is randomly allocated into groups. In a quasi-experiment, investigator manipulates the study factor but does not assign individuals randomly to treatment groups.
Increases and decreases in the frequency of diseases and health conditions over a period of years or within a year. Cyclic fluctuations
These studies are concerned with characterizing the amount and distribution of disease within a population. Descriptive studies
Refers to joining data from two or more sources, for example, employment records and mortality data. Record linkage
A study design that is well suited to examine the prevalence of disease and inform resource allocation. Cross-sectional study
With this study design, you can only look at exposures that are thought to be beneficial. Randomized control trial
On August 21, 1996, the federal government enacted the law. This law protects individually identifiable health information. HIPAA
Type of experimental design that greatly enhance the potential to make a widespread impact on population health. Example., Smoking cessation, weight loss, etc. Community trial
Is a statistical measure that is considered by many epidemiologists to be more meaningful than a point estimate. Confidence interval
An approach to estimating the effects due to the single exposure factor is to compute this. Etiologic fraction
What is the most important aim of a good informed consent form? To obtain the informed consent of the participant
Is it appropriate to include the names and contact details of other people who are also participating in the project in a research participants' informed consent form? No
Is it ethical to share your data with other organizations who have a legitimate interest in your research? No
What is the over-riding principle governing ethical research behavior? To protect research participants and their communities from harm
Apart form damage to individuals, how else can research damage people? By creating stereotypes (for groups)
How can individuals involved in research be protected from damage? 1) By gaining their consent 2) By avoiding details which could identify a place or organization 3) By being anonymous
What is the most appropriate measure of association to use in a cohort study where there is significant loss to follow-up? Incidence density ratio (NOT incidence density which is not a measure of association) takes into account person time at risk, and therefore better captures time in the study. This better captures the true time at risk within your study population.
When are cumulative incidence and incidence incidence similar?
If a study had doubled the sample size, what would you expect the impact on the confidence interval to be? Narrower
What two factors influence the positive predictive value of a screening test in most situations? Specificity and prevalence of the condition
What are reasons that researchers may choose older subjects (55+) when it comes to investigating lung cancer? 1) Lung cancer takes a while to develop 2) If they included younger people, may have also gotten genetic cases (which they don't want)
What is the difference between an outbreak, and epidemic, and a pandemic? An “outbreak” and an “epidemic” essentially mean the same thing to an epidemiologist, but the term “epidemic” has a more serious connotation than “outbreak” and is used less frequently to avoid the perception of a crisis situation.
What is a cluster? Refers to a group of cases in a specific time and place that may or may not be greater than normal
Created by: AlneciaPHS