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Death & Dying Ch 13

"The Last Dance - Encountering Death and Dying" Chapter 13

QuestionAnswer
Victims of the Great Plague that devastated London in 1665 exhibited symptoms similar to the pestilence caused by what? The Black Death - a deadly pandemic that swept Europe in the 14th century.
What are encounters with death termed that deal with massive loss of life? Megadeaths
What are some of the perils we face? Accidents, violence, war, terrorism, emerging epidemic diseases.
The degree of risk we assume is often subject to what? Our own choices about how to live our lives.
Risks refers to hazards that are what? Actively assessed in relation to future possibilities.
What risks do devotees to a strain of hip-hop music called hyphy engage in? A driver gets out of his car and dances around to a hip-hop beat on top of the slowly moving vehicle.
What is the risk taken by devotees of hyphy called? Ghost-riding the whip.
What does a wingsuit do? Shapes the human body into an airfoil that creates lift so the flier can manipulate his/her torso & limbs to control free fall to achieve a slow, vertical descent before opening a parachute.
What are examples of risks that can be controlled? Smoking, drinking, taking drugs and driving habits.
What are some occupations that involve dangers most people would avoid. High-rise window washer, movie stuntperson, test pilot, explosives expert, police & firefighter, scientist who handle hazardous materials, miners, electricians, heavy-equipment operators, farmworkers who use toxic pesticides, professional footbal.
In which country is job related stress legally recognized as a cause of death? Japan
What is karoshi? Sudden death from overwork.
How is karoshi categorized? A buildup of fatigue caused by long hours of work that clearly exceed all normal physiological limitations, disruptions in an individual's normal daily rhythms, and other job-related strains.
In some occupations, what has forced workers to conduct business far into the night after the normal day's work has been completed? The rise of global markets with corresponding time differences.
Name some recreational activities that carry risk of death. Mountain climbing, parachuting, scuba diving, motorcycle racing.
High risk recreational activities are sometimes characterized as what? Thrill seeking
An activity may be attractive to some BECAUSE of its inherited risk, while for others what is true? They accept the risk as inseparable from other attractive features of the activity.
when behavior involves doing dangerous things just for the thrill of it, or as a way to laugh in the face of death, it may represent what? An attempt to deny fear or anxiety about death.
Blaming the victim can be a means of coping that allows individuals to do what? Feel comfortable continuing the activity despite the risks.
Which groups of people may be affected by a death from a high-risk sport or similar activity? Those immediately involved (like those who rented the equipment out or gave instructions), and the larger community who also participate in the sport.
Death from a high-risk sport challenges what assumption? That cautious practice of the sport ensures safety.
About how many of drivers involved in accidents are under the influence of alcohol? Half
To increase teen driver safety, some states have instituted what? Graduated driver license laws.
What is the graduated driver license law in California? Drivers under 18 must have license for a year before being allowed to drive between 11 PM and 5 AM or before being allowed to transport passengers under the age of 20 without an adult in the car.
What is a wrongful death? When a person is killed due to the negligence or misconduct of another individual, company or entity.
Unsafe conditions are often related to what? The attitudes and value systems of the person or group responsible or of society as a whole.
How negligent must a society be before "accidental" deaths are what? Tantamount to homicide
What is one of the most potent of our encounters with death? Violence
What can affect our thoughts and actions even when we have not been victimized ourselves? Violence
How many murders occurred in the U.S. in the most recent study? 15,000
In what fraction of murders in the U.S. were handguns used? 2/3
What % of the murders in the U.S. were related to the commission of a felony? 16%
What were the majority of murders in the U.S. related to? Gang killings, alcohol-induced brawls, romantic triangles, and other unspecified causes.
What age group is disproportionally represented among victims of violence? Young people
Which rap musician likened gang warfare to other wars? Ice-T
What was Ice-T's hometown? South Central Los Angeles
In what area did one mother wish for just 2 blocks with no shooting after losing her son to gun violence? Detroit
In Anaheim, CA, where were two men killed in gang violence? In a cemetery, visiting the graves of two fellow gang members.
For some, guns are more than just weapons. What are they? Potent symbols of power and energy.
Children who witness violence have been called what? Silent victims
An awareness of violence permeates the environment and determines what? Where people prefer to live,shop walk and drive; how they respond to strangers on the streets; how late at night they stay out of their homes.
Unlike any other environmental threat, violence has what? Turned into a public health epidemic.
Although she had no direct experience with the killings of the Trailside Killer, one woman who usually jogged along one of the trails he targeted felt what? Victimized by the violence because it occurred in her own familiar environment.
What did Dana DeHart and John Mahoney conclude in reviewing the motivations of serial killers? Virtually everyone is at some risk. Even cautious and circumspect persons are not safe - the victims need not provoke or even be acquainted with the killer.
In the Columbine High School shootings, how many were injured and killed? 13 murdered, 23 wounded, 2 suicides.
What is the difference between a serial killer and a mass murderer? Serial = several victims over a span of time. Mass = many victims at once, in one place.
What is the earliest incident of mass murder noted by the course book? 1927 - Michigan, a school board killed his wife, then blew up the town's school, killing 44 people, including 39 students and teachers.
Are mass murders a phenomenon of the U.S. No. Our book cites examples in Germany as well.
What is the term that refers to factors that facilitate murder and other homicidal acts? Psychic maneuvers
Name some of the factors favoring violence. Anything that physically or psychologically separates the potential killer from the victims. Anything that permits the killer to define murder as something else. Anything that fosters perceiving people as objects or as less than human.
Name the next 3 factors favoring violence. Anything that permits one to escape responsibility by blaming someone else. Anything that encourages seeing oneself as debased or worthless. Anything that reduces self-control, or that is believed to have this effect.
Name the final 2 factors favoring violence listed in the text. Anything that forces a hasty decision or that does not permit time for cooling off. Anything that encourages a person to feel above or outside the law.
TRUE or FALSE According to our text, a victim is never responsible for escalating a conflict to the level of physical violence. FALSE: Our text indicates that in some instances there are indications that the victim seemed to be "asking for it."
Redmond underscores the fact that labeling victims as bad, careless, seductive, with the wrong crowd or asking for it denies what? The reality that everyone is vulnerable to victimization.
Blaming the victim is a way to do what? Overcome one's own sense of vulnerability and thereby regain a sense of personal security.
More effective than blaming the victim is what? Understanding the factors that favor violence and taking action reduce their presence in our own lives and in society as a whole.
The sense of social isolation that breeds violence is counteracted by what? Families taking care to communicate positive community values.
Violence is reduced when residents do what? Work together to create a safe and orderly environment and neighbors take a measure of responsibility for maintaining social order.
Cohen and Swift argue that stopping the momentum of violence requires what? A critical mass of people who are willing to speak out and work together to change the structures and policies that frame the way we live.
Name the first 3 guidelines for lessening the potential for violence as listed by the text. 1. Avoid the use of prejudicial, dehumanizing, or derogatory labels. 2. Avoid/eliminate conditions that underlie dehumanizing perceptions. 3. Promote communication and contact between potential adversaries, emphasizing similarities & common goals.
Name the second 3 guidelines for lessening the potential for violence as listed by the text. 4. Refrain from using physical punishment as the primary means of discipline. 5. Champion the good guy. 6. Teach children that violence is not fun, cute or smart. Emphasize that they are responsible for their behavior.
Name the last 2 guidelines for lessening the potential for violence as listed by the text. 7. Identify & foster the human resources that can provide alternatives to violence. Promote sharing, and thinking before engaging in impulsive/hostile actions. 8. Reduce the attractiveness of violence in the media.
War abrogates conventional sanctions against killing by doing what? Substituting a different set of conventions and rules about moral conduct.
Arnold Toynbee says, "The fundamental postulate of war is that, in war," what? "killing is not murder."
World War I has been called what? The turning point in the history of the earth.
Describe the protagonist in "Johnny Got His Gun." A veteran without arms, legs, ears, eyes, nose, mouth - who taps out message on his pillow with his head and asks to be an educational exhibit to concentrate war in one stump of a body.
According to the United Nations, in the year 2000 how many child soldiers were forcibly recruited as combatants in conflicts around the world? 300,000
Chivalrous notions of combat, in which mounted men-at-arms meet gallantly to do battle on an uninhabited hill or plain have been replaced with what? Modern times reality of mass technological warfare.
In recalling epic battles of legend and of old, the enemy is seen as a worthy opponent with whom one is engaged in what? A metaphysic of struggle.
Instead of individual initiative and courage, modern warfare emphasizes what? Bureaucratic cooperation and calculation.
What has been called the most characteristic feature of the modern war machine? Technological alienation
By the end of World War II, what was true of casualties? Civilian victims outnumbered military casualties.
What radically altered the conventional limits of warfare? The atomic bomb
At Hiroshima and Nagasaki what was transformed from metaphor into a literal reality? The city of the dead.
The characteristic response to carnage is what? Psychic numbing
What is psychic numbing? Exposed to mass death, the self-protective psychological response is to become insensitive and unfeeling.
In the story of Dalton Trumbo's veteran, why was his request to be made a living exhibit of the ravaging, destructive effects of war denied? He was a perfect picture of the future, and they were afraid to let anyone see what the future was like.
According to the International Red Cross, what is the fraction of casualties in modern warfare who are civilians? 9/10
The dropping of the atomic bombs on Japans seems to have marked the removal of what? All moral restraints.
What does Toynbee point out as a convention of warfare? To dress the part.
What is the psychological effect of the uniform? It symbolizes the abrogation of the normal taboo on killing fellow human beings and replaces it with a duty to kill them.
What can the tension and hyperalertness of combat produce? An addictive high
What are some of the ways on Marine who fought in the Gulf War describes that they show their fear? Violent indifference, fake ease, standard-issue bravura.
The conventions of war are (A) and (B) altering. A - mind B - personality
Changes in personality and mood are rooted in the special climate of the combat zone. These mutations evolve in such a wily fashion that what? The person who undergoes them is not aware of the alterations himself.
Each of us experiences differences in our behavior according to what? The social context
What is the total schizophrenia one veteran referred to in the text? When you're in combat you don't really remember what it's like to come back into the social context of a society where killing is abhorrent. When you come back home, you don't really remember the context of the combat situation, except in nightmares.
While societies tend to reflect on their participation in war as patriotism, the the heroism of fighting for one's country, the need to defend the things that are held dear, what do the combatants express? Individuals fighting for their lives.
What symptoms does post-traumatic stress disorder refer to? Numbness, irritability, depression, relationship problems, survivor's guilt.
What are some other terms for post-traumatic stress disorder? delayed grief syndrome, post-traumatic grief disorder, shell shock, battle fatigue
When did PTSD first become prominent? The aftermath of the Vietnam War
Psychiatrist Jonathan Shay finds parallels between the grief and rage experienced by modern combat veterans and what? The description in Homer's Iliad of warriors who fought in the Trojan Wars 3000 years ago.
One lesson from Homer's "Iliad," according to Shay, is what? Soldiers should be allowed to grieve.
What is profoundly damaging to survivors of combat? Snatching bodies of the battlefield in black bags and spiriting them back to stateside mortuaries without permitting comrades to mourn the fallen.
What are some of the activities that have helped veterans come to terms with their experiences and heal from wounds received in war? Meditation, hundred-mile "Last Patrol" walks, sweat-lodge rituals, honoring dances.
The fly-fishing camp in Idaho helps veterans learn to recognize what triggers their stress and how to manage it through what? Recreation
How many names are engraved on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington D.C.? More than 58,000
War creates a phantom army composed of who? Souses, children, parents and friends who serve invisibly at home.
What does collateral damage encompass? The civilian deaths that occur in a war zone and the grief experienced by families whose lives are disrupted by the loss or injury of loved ones serving in the war zone.
What work by Karl von Clausewitz is considered a classic study? "On War"
According to "On War", war is the continuation of what? Political policy by other means.
Generally speaking, how is war defined? A condition of hostile conflict between opposing forces, each of which believes its vital interests are at stake and seeks to impose control on the opposing side through the use of force.
Joining with others against a common enemy creates a sense of what? Community and connectedness
What proceeds the technology of warfare? Propaganda
According to Sam Keen, it seems unlikely that we will have any success in controlling warfare unless we come to understand what? The logic of political paranoia and the process of creating propaganda that justifies our hostility.
According to Dannis Klass, what plays an integral role in long and bitter wars? Bonds of the bereaved with the dead.
What are the 4 major themes Debra Umberson and Kristin Henderson distinguished in how media reports generate public support for war while facilitating denial of death? Rhetorical devices - distance death & encourage its denial. Official denial of blame for war-related deaths & comfort to public of minimal death. Rhetoric - prepare public for death in war & view deaths as just. Ambiguity & uncertainty about death toll
When we come to view other human beings as hostile, even ambiguous actions may be perceived as threatening, and when we act to defend ourselves from this perceive threat, what happens? Their reaction confirms our initial assumption.
Viewed symbolically, war allows us to what? Ritually affirm our own deathlessnes by killing the enemy, who IS Death.
What religious example does our text cite as reflecting the symbolic view of war? The promise that warriors who fall in battle go directly to Valhalla or Paradise.
Name the first 4 images of the enemy listed by the text. As stranger. "Us" vs "Them." As aggressor. "Good" vs "Evil." Faceless enemy. "Human beings" vs "Dehumanized barbarians." As enemy of God. War as applied theology. "Holy" vs "Unholy."
Name the next 4 images of the enemy listed by the text. As barbarian - threat to culture, heathen, pagan. As criminal, committer of atrocities, torturer (anarchists, terrorists, outlaws). As torturer/sadist. As rapist, desecrator of women & children - woman as bait & trophy.
Name the last 3 images of the enemy listed by the text. As beast, reptile, insect, germ (Gives sanctions for extermination). As death ("The ultimate threat"). As worthy opponent ("Heroic warfare/chivalry").
Name some examples of the worthy opponent image of the enemy. Achilles & Agamemnon, King Arthur & the Knights of the Round Table, the samurai in medieval Japan.
Define genocide. The systematic effort to destroy an entire national, racial, political, or cultural group.
By whom and under what circumstances was the term genocide coined? By Raphael Limkin in studying the Armenian genocide.
What is the estimate of how many lives were lost in the Armenian genocide? 300,000 - 1.5 million
Between 1941 and 1945, how many Jews did Nazi Germany exterminate? 6 million
How many people did Nazi Germany kill whom they deemed political opponents, mentally ill, retarded, or somehow genetically inferior? 5 million
What is autogenicide? A group's killing of its own people.
When the Khmer Rouge came to power in Cambodia, how many people died form execution and starvation? 2 million
After the assassination of the president of Rwanda in 1994, how many people and mainly of what tribe were massacred? 1 million Tutsi
What ongoing genocide continues large-scale violence into the 21st century? Darfur (Sudan)
The neglect or repression of grief from genocide may contribute to what? Further genocide by perpetuating a cycle of violence focused on revenge.
On average, how many deaths each day occurred at Buchenwald due to starvation, disease, unsanitary living conditions and incessant torture? 200
Although there are more than 100 definitions of terrorism, what can be said about defining terrorism? There is no single universally accepted definition.
What is among the common elements of terrorism? The use or threat of violence to create fear among both its direct victims and a wider audience.
What is the U.S. State Department definition of terrorism? Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.
Why is the U.S. State Department definition of terrorism incomplete according to the text? Many terrorist acts are aimed against military/political forces. Terrorist acts may be perpetrated by states. Much terrorism has religious sources. Tends to treat it as crime rather than war.
Why is the proposal to treat terrorism as war not universally accepted? War = a state of usually open & declared armed hostile conflict between states/nations. Activity conducted according to socially recognized rules. Terrorism = outside boundaries of social sanctions regulating conduct.
How are the rules of war spelled out? International agreements like the Geneva Convention which describes matters like treatment of prisoners of war, sick, wounded & dead.
What is shaping the debate about how to define terrorism and whether is should be classified and prosecuted as a criminal act or one of war? The methods and manner of terrorist activities.
Terrorism has been called the weapon of what? The weakest
To generate widespread fear, terrorists engage in what? Dramatic and high-profile attacks, including hijackings, hostage takings, kidnappings, car bombings, suicide bombings.
There is an element of newness in regard to what about terrorism? Weaponry and how it is being used.
Terrorists often rely on what effect? The amplification effect - whereby their actions are broadcast through the media to a much larger audience than merely the one in the location where the action occurs, thus giving their acts greater significance.
How are the media and terrorism linked? Through the media's interest in sensational news and the terrorists desire for publicity.
Terrorist goals are aided by what? The element of surprise and the pervasive sense of fear among the threatened population.
The hijackings and suicide attacks of September 11, 2001 were perpetrated by whom? 19 militants associated with an Islamic extremist group known as al-Qaeda.
How many were killed by the collapse of the 110-story Twin Towers of the World Trade Center? 2400 workers and hundreds of firefighters.
By bringing down the Twin Towers and severely damaging the Pentagon, the terrorists of 9-11 had struck at what? The symbolic heart of the nation's economic wealth and military might.
Because of the time of the day of the 9-11 attacks, what happened for the first time regarding terrorism? The event could be seen anywhere, in both hemispheres, any latitude, any culture, throughout the world - live.
The terrorist moment of 9-11 took place in what created by extensive media coverage? A global public space
Analysis of videotapes showed that at least how many people died by falling or jumping from the Twin Towers after they were hit in the 9-11 attack? 60
Besides conventional news media, what was a major medium for disseminating news of the 9-11 attack? The internet
How many people managed to escape the 9-11 attack on the Twin Towers? More than 15,000
How many people were recovered alive from the collapsed Twin Towers? 18
In the aftermath of 9-11, elaborate rituals were associated with the remains of who? The 343 firefighters who were viewed as having died while performing acts of heroism.
A growing "us versus them" mentality at the site of the Twin Towers aftermath was evident in what way and led to what? Dissimilar treatment of remains, leading to a "Battle of the Badges."
In Israel, what does the volunteer organization known as ZAKA do? Collect remains and identify as many parts as possible, including blood, so that as much of a victim's body as possible can be buried.
To help volunteers cope with the intense grief and stress of rescue and cleanup work wherein they see firsthand the gruesome violence done to human beings, ZAKA does what? Regularly schedules counseling workshops, family days & other programs where members can discuss their feelings in an atmosphere of mutual support.
What were some of the problems regarding the aftermath of 9-11 that added to the impact of the terrorism? Problems in recovering & identifying victims' remains and the scope & extent of devastation.
What did the "New York Times" publish just days after the 9-11 attacks? A special feature, "Portraits of Grief" that evolved into a kind of shrine offering vignettes about people who had died.
What did the "Portraits of Grief" represent? Journalism as tribute, as homage, as witness and as solace.
What was different about the "Portraits of Grief" from formal obituaries? Obituaries highlight status and achievements, while the portraits highlighted a person's unique humanity & interests.
In creating their artworks and writing their messages for the survivors and responders to 9-11, children expressed what? Their anxieties and feelings about the events of 9-11, while reaching out to others in gestures of support.
What are the first 3 factors listed by the text that increase the impact of terrorism? 1. Scope & extent of physical & emotional devastation. 2. Realization that destruction & horror were intentional & directed not just at individuals but also at the govt & culture they represent. 3. Age of victims, especially young adults or children.
What are the second 3 factors listed by the text that increase the impact of terrorism? 4. Defenselessness of victims & suddenness of attack. 5. Duration of event, including length of time it takes to rescue & recover. 6. Difficulties & delays in identifying & returning remains, severe body fragmentation, disposition of common human tissue
What are the third 3 factors listed by the text that increase the impact of terrorism? 7. Remains of terrorists mixing with remains of victims. 8. Intrusiveness of media - repetitive broadcast of disturbing images. 9. Speculation about perpetration & their motivations, who was behind attack, whether true architects of attack can be caught
What are the final 3 factors listed by the text that increase the impact of terrorism? 10. Speculation about ability of official agencies to have prevented the attack. 11. Difficulty in finding those with knowledge & experience in working with violent injury & death. 12. Large-scale memorials & anniversary commemorations.
In how many countries does al-Qaeda have operations worldwide? As many as 60.
What new kind of combat organization is al-Qaeda representative of? A fighting network
Under what circumstances did martyrdom take shape? 2nd century C.E. when Christians who refused to sacrifice to the Roman emperor were subjected to the extreme penalty, death by torture or other horrific means.
The enthusiasm for a martyr's death, arranged by an external agent with the complicity of the victim, was seen in reports of what? Radiant joy, smiles & laughter.
Why are suicide missions easy to plan? No escape route is needed, and even if they are apprehended en route, some damage can be inflicted on the enemy.
In suicide bombings, what is more important than the individual? The collective - religion, sect, nation.
Aaron Beck says that terrorists are not deranged but what? Possessed by a cool hatred toward the designated enemy.
What 3 factors does Shashi Tharoor say the blind hatred of an Other in terrorism is the product of? Fear, rage, incomprehension
What does Shashi Tharoor say we must learn to do to tackle and end terrorism? See ourselves as others see us, recognize hatred and deal with its causes, dispel fear, learn about each other.
Tharoor describes the 21st century as what? The global century
What non-violent threat does the text list? Emerging infectious diseases like AIDS.
Medically defined HIV infection is caused by what? One of two related retroviruses that become incorporated into host cell DNA, progressively destroying white blood cells called lymphocytes and causing AIDS & other diseases that result from impaired immunity.
The consensus is that what percentage of HIV-infected persons eventually develop AIDS. Almost all
Among which ethnicities is the impact of AIDS greatest in the U.S.? African American & Hispanic
In the early 20th century, what predominated among the principal causes of death? Infectious diseases.
What was the reported death toll of the influenza epidemic of 1918-1919? 20 - 40 million people worldwide.
For many people AIDS is synonymous with what? Death - a dreaded disease, contagious and epidemic, a modern plague.
Robert Kastenbaum says that the symbolism of AIDS embodies what? The stigma of earlier forms of catastrophic dying: disfiguration, dementia, skeletonization.
AIDS conveys multiple meanings about what? Human vanity and pride, divine punishment, attack by an enemy from within, the terror of life in death & the despair of death in life, the romantic exit of brilliant & beautiful doomed youth.
As Ronald Barrett points out, people with AIDS have sometimes exhibited what? Social withdrawal and self-initiated isolation.
People who display social withdrawal and self-initiated isolation have been termed what? Elephant people, in reference to the belief that dying elephants remove themselves form their herd and go away to a remote elephant burial ground to die.
For some marginalized people, AIDS appears to be a form of what? Race or class warfare, "a virus created in a govt or CIA lab in an attempt to 'clean up' a seemingly dirty population."
According to a UN report, what virus is one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history? HIV/AIDS
How many people worldwide are currently living with HIV? 33 million
How many AIDS related deaths were there in 2008, and how many people were newly infected? 2 million deaths, 2.7 million new infections.
What region is the most affected by AIDS? Sub-Saharan Africa
How many children in Sub-Saharan Africa have been orphaned by AIDS? 11 million
Where is AIDS concentrated, and what effect is it having there? In the developing world where it is wiping out gains in life expectancy made in recent decades.
In the U.S., who is mainly affected by AIDS? IV drug users, hemophiliacs, recipients of blood transfusions, sexual partners of individuals infected with the virus.
In other parts of the world, how is AIDS mainly transmitted? Heterosexual contact
With new treatment options for AIDS, the focus has changed from what to what? From dying with AIDS to living with HIV and AIDS.
If AIDS is a harbinger of things to come, what lessons do we need to learn? 1. Early identification of those at risk. 2. A shift to community & public health perspective. 3. Address health problems on a global scale.
Why did North America and Western European countries take the approach they did with AIDS? They value individual privacy more highly than society's stake in controlling the disease, and HIV is not transmitted by ordinary contact with infected individuals, so the privacy of those infected was safeguarded.
What is urban desertification or social thanatology? Abandonment of inner-city areas
How do experts believe new viruses erupt in humans? They reside harmlessly in birds and occasionally infect pigs, where they are changed into a new form that can affect humans, or they are deprived of their natural hosts where there is no equilibrium.
What is the root meaning and the psychological definition for trauma? Root = A wound, a piercing. Psychological = a Disordered psychic or behavioral state resulting from severe mental or emotional stress.
What characterizes traumatic deaths? Suddenness & lack of anticipation; preventability/randomness; level of violence, mutilation & destruction; multiple deaths.
What examples does the text cite as horrendous deaths? War, homicide, holocaust, terrorism, starvation, poisoning of the environment.
What does horrendous death typically involve? The motivation to kill, maim, injure, torture, or otherwise destroy another human being.
Created by: silvrwood