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Epi definitions

Epidemiologic definitions

TermDefinition
Public health A multidisciplinary field whose goal is to promote the health of population through organized community efforts
Epidemiology The study of the distribution and determinants of disease frequency in human populations and the application of this study to control health problems
Disease Refers to a broad array of health-related states and events including diseases, injuries, disabilities, and death
Population A group of people with a common characteristic
Measure of disease frequency Quantifies how often a disease arises in a population
Disease distribution Refers to the pattern of disease according to the characteristics of person(who is getting the disease?), place (where is it occurring?), and time (how is it changing over time?)
Disease determinants Factors that either cause a healthy person to become sick or cause a sick person to recover; capable of bringing about a change in health
Disease control The ultimate aim of epidemiology, and refers to the reduction or elimination of disease occurrence
Sir Richard Doll 20th century British researcher known for studies about smoking and health
Social determinants of health These are non biological factors that can lead to differential health outcomes between population
John Snow -Victorian (19th century) surgeon/anesthesiologist who became quintessential epidemiologic hero -Known for innovative theory about waterborne theory of cholera. Figured how cholera was being transmitted by contaminated water in London
Morbidity Related to disease or disability
Incidence This measure of mortality/morbidity measures new cases of disease that emerge within a certain period of time in a given population
John Graunt -1st to record descript charact of birth/death data, incl seasonal variations, infant mortality, and excess male over female differences in mortality -"Columbus of statistics" -First to employ quantitative methods in describing population vital statisti
Epidemic -A sharp increase in the frequency of a disease relative to historically normal levels in a specific population -The occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness (or outbreak) clearly in excess of expectancy
Outbreak The occurrence of more cases of disease than normally expected within a specific place or group of people over a given period of time
Cyclicity
Secular trend Describes the occurrence of disease over a prolonged period, usually years or decades; it is influenced by the degree of immunity in the population & possibly nonspecific measures such as improved socioeconomic and nutritional levels among the population.
Pandemic An epidemic on a worldwide scale, large number of persons may be affected and a disease may cross international borders
Case-control study The most efficient and economical analytic design for studying rare diseases
Blinding/masking Concealing the treatment group assignment from participants, investigators, data collectors, or data analysts
Period effect Variation in health status that arises from changes in the environment during a given time period
Cross-sectional study A useful study for resource planning and documenting the prevalence of disease in a population
Registry A centralized database for collection of information about a disease
Incidence This measure of mortality/morbidity measures new cases of disease that emerge within a certain period of time in a given population
Retrospective cohort study A longitudinal study that utilizes historical records to ascertain exposure status
Temporality One Bradford Hill criterion for causal inference that must hold true between exposure and disease
Case-control study The most efficient and economic analytic design for studying rare diseases
Blinding/Masking Concealing the treatment group assigning from participants, investigators, data collectors, or data analysts
Period effect Variation in health status that arises from changes in the environment during a given time period
Cross-sectional study A useful study design for resource planning and documenting the prevalence of disease in a population
Registry A centralized database for collection of information about a disease
Incidence This measure of mortality/morbidity measures new cases of disease that emerge within a certain period of time in a given population
Retrospective cohort study A longitudinal study that utilizes historical records to ascertain exposure status
Temporality One Bradford Hill criterion for causal inference that must hold true between exposure and disease
Standard Mortality Ratio Observed deaths/expected deaths
Ecological study A study in which at least one variable is measured at the group (not individual) level; appropriate for initial investigation of causal hypothesis
Principle of beneficence States that research participants should not be exposed to unreasonable harms
Equipoise Deals with the amount of scientific uncertainty that exists for a given research question
Mortality rate A measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time
Ratio Compares values; says how much of one thing there is compared to another thing
Proportion A part considered in relation to the whole; the relation between elements and a whole
Effect modifier (also called moderator) A variable that differentially (positively and negatively) modifies the observed effect of a risk factor on disease status -Different groups have different risk estimates when effect modification is present
Mediator An intervening variable that is necessary to complete a cause–effect link between exposure and outcome
Moderator An interaction variable that affects the direction, strength, or both of the relationship between an exposure and mediator or mediator and outcome; stratification by this variable will show diff strength relationships between exposure and outcome.
Age effect Change in the rate of a condition according to age, irrespective of birth cohort and calendar time
Cohort effect Change in the rate of a condition according to year of birth, irrespective of age and calendar time
Period effect Change in the rate of a condition affecting an entire population at some point in time, irrespective of age and birth cohort
Surveillance Ongoing collection, meaningful analysis, and routine dissemination of relevant data for providing opportunities for public health action to prevent and control disease
Hippocrates -Suggested disease might be associated with environmental factors -The first to suggest that disease might be associated with the physical environment-movement away from supernatural explanation of disease causation
Sir Percival Pott -First to describe an environmental cause of cancer -Observed that chimney sweeps has a high incidence of scrotal cancer
Edward Jenner Developed a method for smallpox vaccination in 1796
William Farr -"Compiler of abstracts" -Developed a more sophisticated system for codifying medical conditions -Examined possible linkage between mortality rates and pop. density
Robert Koch Demonstrated the association between a microorganism and disease
Component cause Factors joint action of theses are needed for a causal mechanism event or condition that plays a role in a disease occurence
Muticausality Every causal mechanism involves the joint action of a mutitude of component causes. many factors are involved in the presence of a disease
5W's Who -Person; what -diagnosis; when-time; where-place; why-causes,risk factors, mode of transmission
Competing risk People being removed from a study through death from other cases
Attack rate Risk of becoming infected by a condition during an period of epidemic
Secondary attack rate Attack rate among susceptiable people who come in contact with primary causes
Case fatality rate Proporation of people who developed a disease and than die from the diease
Endemic A disease that is habitually present in a particular geographical region
Epidemic Threshold The minimum number of cases (or deaths) that would support the conclusion that an epidemic was underway
Foundation of Epidemiology Factors that cause or contribute to diseases and injuries can be identified by means of systematic investigation
Koch's Postulates (4) -The microorganism must be abundannt in all cases, but not in healthy -Must be isolated from a case and grown in pure culture -Culture should cause disease in a control -Must be reisolated from case and ID'd as identical to original causative agent
Modern Epidemiology's Shift Epidemiologic transition of the 20th century caused shift in focus from acute infections diseases to chronic "life style
Three Factors that affect the size of populations 1. Birth 2. Death 3. Migration
Case definition 1. Clinical information about the disease 2. Characteristics of the people who are affected 3. Information about the location or place 4. Specification of the time during which the outbreak occurred
Created by: AlneciaPHS