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Death & Dying Ch 8

"The Last Dance - Encountering Death and Dying" Chapter 8

What has been characterized as the most significant of the rites of passage from womb to tomb? Funeral rites
How do the ceremonies a community enacts to mark the passing of one of its members express how death is perceived within a particular social group? Through symbol and metaphor
What is a wake? A vigil held prior to burial at which those close to the deceased keep watch over the body.
What purpose do wakes serve? A transforming effect on friends and family, not only helping them adjust to life without the departed, but also recreating their bonds as family.
What was the Egyptian culture focused on? Acquiring mortuary goods and preparing for the afterlife.
What was a dominant theme in Egyptian religion? Life after death
In ancient Egypt, what was the Ba? A soul or psychic force
In ancient Egypt, what was the Ka? A spiritual double representing the creative and sustaining power of life.
In ancient Egypt, if the Ba were destroyed, what would happen? The deceased would suffer the second death, the death that really did come as the end.
What are the jazz funerals of the New Orleans brass bands a throwback to? The ancient Christian and African traditions of rejoicing when you die.
In a jazz funeral what is the difference between the music on the walk to the cemetery versus on the return? It is slow, dirge-like and solemn on the way to the cemetery, but fast, joyful and uplifting on the return.
What has the jazz funeral of New Orleans been called? A celebration of the soul's entrance into heave.
Traditionally, what do funeral rites begin with? The gathering of family and friends for a deathwatch to accompany the dying person in his or her last hours of life.
What is a deathwatch? As death nears, relatives and friends gather to say farewells and show respect for the dying person, as well as to give support and care to his or her family.
What does preparation of the deceased involve? Various tasks associated with preparing the corpse for ultimate disposition.
What is a wake? Traditionally held on the night after death occurs - laying out the corpse and keeping a watch over it. Historically observed as a safeguard against premature burial, as an opportunity to pay respects to the deceased, and occasion for lively festivities.
What is a funeral? The centerpiece of the ritual surrounding death - rite of passage for both the deceased and his or her survivors.
What is a procession? Conveying the corpse from the site of the funeral to the place of burial.
What is a committal? A ceremony held at the grave or crematorium.
What is disposal of the corpse? Burial or cremation
What 4 major social functions did Vanderlyn Pine point out that funerals have historically addressed? Acknowledge & commemorate a person's death. Provide a setting for the disposition of the dead body. Assist in reorienting the bereaved to their lives. Demonstrate reciprocal economic & social obligations between the bereaved & their social world.
What does the presence of death rites in every human culture suggest? They serve innate human needs.
In the African American community, what is an untimely notification of death considered? Insensitive, lacking respect, and an insult.
Why may the belatedly notified person feel he or she is alone dealing with grief after a death? The mutual support of the community of bereaved persons is unlikely to be as available after the initial period of mourning has passed.
What purpose doe various signs and symbols, such as armbands, serve in some societies? Distinguish the bereaved from those not in mourning.
Why have web sites have been set up that can notify online friends of a death? Online social networks are becoming ever more important in our lives, and some people have purely online relationships wherein the friends would not otherwise know about the death.
Why is the process of announcing death important? It can elicit support that is helpful to survivors in dealing with their loss, and provide an impetus for coming to terms with the fact that a significant loss has taken place.
What does assembling a community reassure us of? We are part of a larger whole, thereby strengthening our individual lives.
Referring to someone as a "widow" reflects what? The change of status of the survivors of a death.
What do announcement, visitation, and other after-death rituals provide? Potent psychological impetus for realizing a loss.
What two processes does the disposition of a corpse entail? Mental process (deciding what is to be done) and physical activity (carrying out the decision.)
The final disposition of a dead body is surrounded by what considerations? Social, cultural, religious, psychological and personal
The placing of grave goods is a what? Mourning practice that can be meaningful to survivors.
What are the professionals called who are hired to care for the dead? Morticians
What are the professionals called who are hired to provide services and merchandise for conducting a funeral service? Funeral Director
Why are funeral directors in a position to take advantage of their customers? The average person knows little about the "mystery business" of the funeral business.
When did the U.S. Federal Trade Commission implement the Trade Regulation Rule on Funeral Industry Practices? 1984
The Funeral Rule stipulates that funeral service providers what? Must give detailed info about prices (must be itemized & given over phone & in writing) & legal requirements; No misrepresentation about disposition of human remains, or embalming for a fee w/o prior permission, or casket purchase for direct cremation.
The FTC Funeral Rule can be viewed as the natural outcome of what? A historical process that has removed death from the purview of family and friends and placed it in the hands of professionals.
When did the undertaker assume a larger role in caring for the dead? The later decades of the 19th century.
At a time when disposition of the dead was a human task to be carried out by the family and community, the undertaker was what? Merely a tradesman who furnished goods to bereaved families.
As a result of smaller homes and increased urbanization, the present-day funeral home is a replacement for what? The ceremonial room, or the parlor, that people no longer had in their own homes.
When was the Funeral Directors' National Association established? 1880s
What did the Funeral Directors' National Association do? Promote funeral service business and establish standards.
What can the "aftercare" programs some mortuaries offer include? Telephoning a bereaved spouse to see how that person is doing or offering counseling or bereavement support groups.
Many funeral directors see the offering of aftercare services as a contemporary expression of what? Old-fashioned neighborly concern.
Who traditionally played a large role in assisting bereaved families make funeral arrangements? The clergy
The move from church to mortuary chapel, along with the more dominant role of mortuary personnel, in funerals has caused what? A strain on the relationships between clergy and funeral directors.
What are the confusing emotions regarding our dead we may experience? Aversion, guilt, resentment, anxiety and affection.
The Greek philosopher Herodotus, in the 4th century B.C.E., spoke critically about what? Lavish displays for the dead.
Published in 1926, what book argued that the modern funeral was merely the vestige of a "pagan" superstitious fear of the dead? <i>Funeral Customs: Their Origin and Development</i>
In 1959, what book documented the commercialism and conspicuous display connected with funerals? <i>The American Funeral: A Study in Guilt, Extravagance, and Sublimity"</i>
What was Bowman concerned about in <i>The American Funeral: A Study in Guilt, Extravagance, and Sublimity"</i>? Modern funerals were overlaid with such ostentation that the essential meaning and dignity of funeral rites had all but disappeared.
How did Bowman believe consumers could avoid the potential for exploitation associated with the materialistic features of contemporary funeral practices? Becoming aware of the essential social, psychological and spiritual functions of funeral rituals.
What became a special target of Mitford's <i>The American Way of Death</i>? The language used by funeral industry personnel.
In light of criticisms of funeral practices, do most people report satisfaction with the quality of service provided by local mortuaries? Yes
As a testament to changing times, cremation providers must check what for valuables? The tongue, chest, navel, pubic areas and nasal cavity.
What has replaced the conventional "selection" room where a fairly large space is filled with caskets of various styles and costs? High-tech, touchscreen monitors and software that allow families to choose from a larger range of caskets than could be housed in a selection room, and which serve as an information center about products and services.
Personalized funerals are preferred as what? More authentic rituals.
Each year in the U.S., what is interred under the ground along with bodies? 30 million board feet of casket wood 90,000 tons of steel 1.6 million tons of concrete 800,000 gallons of embalming fluid
Personalized funerals are also called what? Life-centered funerals
Personalized funerals reflect life rather than what? Confront the bereaved with beliefs they may not hold.
The growing popularity of do-it-yourself last rites has also been called what? Family-directed funerals, natural funerals, home funerals
Do-it-yourself funerals may be guided through the options and negotiations of a complex bureaucracy of conventional funeral rules by whom? A "death midwife"
What does a green burial connote? Body disposal in a natural setting with no embalming and no casket. The body is wrapped in a shroud or placed in a biodegradable coffin. A natural marker, such as a tree or a special rock may be permitted.
What is an eternal reef? A small, constructed "reef" used in ocean burials that is lowered into the ocean and soon becomes a habitat for sea animals.
What are space burials? Cremated remains are loaded onto a rocket and either launched into space to orbit Earth and descend into the atmosphere where they totally incinerate, or are transported to the Moon or beyond.
What is a cyber-funeral? Webcasting the memorial or funeral.
What barriers do cyber-funerals overcome? Geographic distance, work obligations, religious or spiritual requirements - such as the 24 hour burial custom of Jews, inability to travel due to health, cost of airfare, care of young children
High-tech innovations have resulted in electronic gravesite memorials where what? A small video monitor is installed into a traditional grave marker and displays videos or pictures.
What are wearable tombstones? T-shirts worn as a way of memorializing victims of violence, accidents or illnesses - began in New Orleans.
Name four facts about roadside memorials. Also called descansos (resting places) Spread from a regional southwestern Hispanic usage Not farewells, but efforts to maintain a sense of continuity with the deceased A practice older than roadways and nearly as old as travel itself.
What are three examples of spontaneous shrines? Roadside crosses, cyber memorials and memorial wall art
What are the four categories the National Funeral Directors Association distinguishes? 1. Services provided by the funeral director & mortuary staff, use of mortuary facilities & equipment, casket & merchandise 2. Disposition of the body 3. Memorialization 4. Misc expenses: Clergy member's honorarium, limo, flowers, death notices...
What is a columbarium? Aboveground structure with a series of niches for urns.
What is the estimate for how much death care services total in the U.S. each year? $15.2 billion
How many people currently die in the U.S. each year? 2.4 million
Why is it difficult to compare funeral home prices when they are itemized? Providers do not always offer the same goods and services, and they may have different ways of presenting prices.
Funerals have been compared to theatrical presentations because of what? Certain activities take place "off stage". The backstage area is hidden from the public and is where the body is prepared.
What is an "intake fee" in mortuaries? A charge for transferring a body from the place of death to the mortuary.
The FTC allows funeral providers to include the professional service fee as part of what? The cost of caskets
The FTC Funeral Rule specifies what about the fee for professional services in regard to direct cremation and immediate burial? It must be included in the price quote.
When is embalming generally done? If the body will be viewed during a wake or will be present at the funeral.
What does embalming detail? Removing bodily fluids, including blood, and replacing them with chemicals to disinfect and temporarily retard deterioration of the corpse.
When was embalming adopted in the U.S.? Around the time of the Civil War
What is the oldest funeral home in the U.S.? Kirk & Nice in Philadelphia, founded in 1761.
What public event greatly increased awareness of the embalming process? The funeral procession for President Lincoln, which traveled by train from Washington D.C. to Springfield, IL.
What is an alternative to embalming? Refrigeration
What is the most popular casket in the U.S.? The gasketed steel casket, which is intended to ensure an airtight environment.
Do customers have to buy a casket from the funeral home contracted to handle the funeral service and burial? No, per the FTC. No handling fees may be charged for caskets purchased elsewhere.
What major retailer added caskets and urns to its website? Walmart
What commerce did the FTC rule giving customers the right to purchase caskets outside of the funeral home without fees result in? Casket discounters
What must a body be placed in for cremation? A rigid container, such as a body-sized cardboard box.
What are two of the facilities a funeral home may charge for the use of? Visitation/viewing room Chapel
In a Balinese village, what happens to a body until cremation can be afforded? It is buried, then disinterred and wrapped in cloth.
What are funeral and memorial societies? Nonprofit, cooperative organizations that offer body disposition to members at a reduced cost by providing simplicity and economy in after-death arrangements.
What is the method chosen for disposition of a corpse likely to involve? Social, cultural, religious, psychological and personal considerations.
In ancient Greece, from the 6th century B.C.E., not to give a body a tomb was considered what? Grossly criminal, condemning it to roam the banks of the Styx, the dreaded river of the underworld.
Which 3 religions typically practice ground burial? Judaism, Christianity and Islam
Which 2 religions typically favor cremation? Hindus and Buddhists
Among Hindus, cremation is seen as what? A gesture of purification and symbol of the transitory nature of human life.
How does Orthodox Judaism view cremation? A form of idolatry
How long does an unembalmed adult body buried six-feet deep in ordinary soil without a coffin normally take to decompose to a bony skeleton? 10 - 12 years
How long does a child's body take compared to an adult's body to decompose? About half the time.
What factors can hasten or delay body decomposition? Environmental conditions, coffins, exposure to environment.
In very dry, desert climates, heat does what to a body? Removes the moisture, acting thereby to preserve it.
What are dakhmas? Towers of silence - scaffolds in India where the community disposes of its dead by leaving corpses to be devoured by birds of prey.
As followers of Zoroaster, the Parsi community believes what? Earth, fire, and water are sacred and not to be defiled by the dead.
What method of body disposal was practiced by mariners since ancient times? Burial at sea.
Describe Norwegian ship burials of Viking Age present. The dead were laid in a wooden grave chamber and placed in a ship along with grave goods, and the whole was covered by an earthen mound.
Why is body donation a limited option? Medical schools and other such institutions require few cadavers.
What event resulted in a change of military policy in which the ashes of military personnel are now escorted home with dignity and honor? Major Edward Strombeck was killed on duty, and his ashes were mailed home.
What land is said to be the most sacred in the United States? Arlington National Cemetery
What adds to the cost of a burial in a cemetery? A grave liner or vault.
What does a crypt historically refer to? Subterranean burial vault or chamber.
What is a mausoleum? An above-ground structure of concrete, marble, or other stone in which one or more bodies are entombed.
Which are the most expensive crypt spaces? Those at eye level.
How hot is the cremation process? 2000 - 2500 degrees Fahrenheit
In the U.S., when does the practice of cremation date to? 19th century
In Europe, how far back does the practice of cremation date? At least the Bronze Age.
Name two countries in which cremation is the most common method of body disposal. India and Japan.
What percent of bodies are disposed of through cremation in the U.S. currently? 40%
What methods have been used for cremation? Wood fire, electric or gas retorts.
How long does cremation take for an average sized body? 1 - 1.5 hours
Why might a person regret scattering a loved one's ashes in the open? They have no specific place to visit the deceased.
What are haka? Small, private mausolea that fit on a standard cemetery plot that hold a dozen crematory urns.
The expense of burials has resulted in mainstream cemeteries offering what for cremated remains? Landscaped garden plots that have space for several urns, thereby allowing several generations to be buried and memorialized in a family plot.
Name one of the largest and one of the tallest memorial structures. Taj Mahal and the obelisk in Washington D.C.
Name one of the smallest memorials. Postage stamps.
What does a memorial function to do? Keep interest alive and preserve remembrance.
As a general rule, who is responsible for arranging the final disposition of a body? The next of kin.
What has been defined as an organized, purposeful, time-limited, flexible, group-centered response to death? The funeral
The monolithic and stereotypical American funeral is being replaced by what? A broader range of options reflecting cultural diversity.
Traditional practices in burials are being altered by what? The fast pace of modern life.
Why does William Lamers believe that substituting a memorial service for a traditional funeral is lacking? Does not take place when feelings are most intense; Family is not exposed to fact of death and does not participate as fully in the process; Absence of body removes therapeutic benefit of fixing fact of death in minds of mourners.
How do opponents of viewing a body at a funeral describe the practice? Unseemly, expensive, undignified, unnecessary.
In traditional Hawaiian culture, the first year anniversary of the day of death memorial feast is considered what? One of the three great occasions, included with feast for the first born and marriage.
What is the 'aha'aina waimaka? Feast of tears - the memorial celebration of the first year anniversary of the day of death in traditional Hawaiian culture.
Created by: silvrwood