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# MoR test 1

### Methods of Research Test 1

Question | Answer |
---|---|

descriptive research | social phenoena defined and described |

evaluation research | describes or identifies the impact of social policies and programs |

exploratory research | find out how poeple get along in the setting under question, what meanings they give to their actions, and what issues concern them |

generalizability | when a conclusion holds true for the population, group, stting, or event that we say it does, |

measurement validity | when an indicator measures what we think it measures |

sample generalizability | when a conclusion based on a sample (subset) of a larger population hods true for that population |

validity | when statements or conclusions about empirical reality are correct |

explanatory research | identify causes and effects of social phenomena and to predict how one phenomena will vary in response to another |

Cohort | individuals or groups with a common starting point |

Confidentiality | only researches for specific needs know information that could link respondents to their responses |

Cross-sectional research design | study in which data are collected at only one point in time |

Dependent variable | variable that is hypothesized to vary depending on or under the influence of another variable |

Ecological fallacy | incorrect conclusions about individual-level processes drawn from group-level data |

Hypothesis | tentative statement about impirical reality |

Independent variable | variable that is hypothesized to cause variation in another variable |

Inductive reasoning | type of reasoning that moves from specific to general |

deductive reasoning | type of reasoning that moves from general to specific |

Institutional review board (IRB) | group of organizational and community representatives requred by law to review ethical issues in all proposed research |

Longitudinal research design | study in which data are collected at two or more points in time |

Certificate of Confidentiality | document issued by the NIH to protect researchers legally requited to disclose confidential information |

Debriefing | informing subjects after an experiment about the experiment's purposes and methods |

Obedience experiments (Milgram) | series of experiments conducted during the 60's by stanley milgram; tested subjects' willingness to cause pain to another person if instructed to do so |

Prison simulation study (Zimbardo) | study by standford psychologist where college students were placed in role as either prisoner or guard; found human readiness to become cruel |

Tearoom Trade study | laud humphreys investigated social background of men who engage in homosexual behavior in public facilities; did not obtain informed consent. |

Tuskegee syphilis study | U.S. government study that deliberately left some african american men untreated. |

Alternate-forms reliability | survey yields same results even when questions are asked in different order or in a different way |

Closed-ended (fixed-choice) question | survey question that provides preformatted response choices for the respondent to circle or check |

Concept | mental image that summarizes a set of similar observations, feelings, or ideas |

Conceptualization | process of specifying what we mean by a term |

Constant | a number that has a fixed value in a given situation; a characteristic or value that doesn't change |

Construct validity | validity that is established by showing that a measure is related to other measures as specified in a theory |

Content validity | validity that exists when the full range of a concepts meaning is covered by the measure |

Criterion validity | validity that is established by comparing scores obtained on the measure being validated to those obtained with a more direct or already validated measure of the same phenomenon |

Level of measurement | the mathematical precision with which the values of a variable can be expressed; includes nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio |

Open-ended question | survey question to which the respondent replies in his own words |

Operationalization | the process of specifying the operations that will indicate the value of cases on a variable |

Predictive validity | validity that exists when a measure predicts scores on a criterion measured in the future |

Reliability | measurement procedure yields consistent scores when phenomenon being measured is not changing |

Scale | composite measure based on combining the responses to multiple questions pertaining to a common concept after these questions are differentially weighted. questions judged to be more important for the underlying concept contribute more to the score |

Split-halves reliability | reliability achieved when responses to the same questions by two randomly selected halves of a sample are about the same |

Test-retest reliability | reliability of scores on a test or survey over time |

Triangulation | the use of multiple methods to study one research question |

Unobtrusive measure | measurement based on physical traces or other data that are collected w/o the knowledge or participation of the individuals or groups that generated the data |

Bar chart | a graphic for qualitative variables in which the variable's distribution is displayed with solid bars separated by spaces |

Cross-tabulation (crosstab) | two (or more) variable distribution showing the distribution of one variable for each category of another variable |

Data cleaning | process of checking data for errors after the data have been entered in a computer file |

Descriptive statistics | statistics used to describe the distribution of and relationship among variables |

Frequency distribution | numerical display showing the number of cases and percentages of cases corresponding to each value or group of values |

Inferential statistics | statistics used to estimate how likely it is that a statistical result based on data from a random sample is representative of the population |

Mean | weighted average computed by adding value of all the cases and dividing by total number of cases |

Measure of association | a type of descriptive statistic that summarizes the strength of an association |

Median | the point that divides a distribution in half |

Mode (probability average) | most frequent value in a distribution |

Normal distribution | symmetric distribution shaped like a bell and centered around the population mean |

Range | the true upper limit in a distribution minues the true lower limit |

Secondary data analysis | analysis of data collected by someone other than the researcher |

Skewness | the extent to which cases are clustered more at one end or the other rather than being normally distributed |

Standard deviation | square root of the average squared deviation of each case from the mean |

Statistical significance | mathematical likelihood that an association is not due to chance |

Variance | statistic that measures the variability of a distribution as the average squared deviation of each case from the mean |

Created by:
awamba94