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MoR test 1

Methods of Research Test 1

descriptive research social phenoena defined and described
evaluation research describes or identifies the impact of social policies and programs
exploratory research find out how poeple get along in the setting under question, what meanings they give to their actions, and what issues concern them
generalizability when a conclusion holds true for the population, group, stting, or event that we say it does,
measurement validity when an indicator measures what we think it measures
sample generalizability when a conclusion based on a sample (subset) of a larger population hods true for that population
validity when statements or conclusions about empirical reality are correct
explanatory research identify causes and effects of social phenomena and to predict how one phenomena will vary in response to another
Cohort individuals or groups with a common starting point
Confidentiality only researches for specific needs know information that could link respondents to their responses
Cross-sectional research design study in which data are collected at only one point in time
Dependent variable variable that is hypothesized to vary depending on or under the influence of another variable
Ecological fallacy incorrect conclusions about individual-level processes drawn from group-level data
Hypothesis tentative statement about impirical reality
Independent variable variable that is hypothesized to cause variation in another variable
Inductive reasoning type of reasoning that moves from specific to general
deductive reasoning type of reasoning that moves from general to specific
Institutional review board (IRB) group of organizational and community representatives requred by law to review ethical issues in all proposed research
Longitudinal research design study in which data are collected at two or more points in time
Certificate of Confidentiality document issued by the NIH to protect researchers legally requited to disclose confidential information
Debriefing informing subjects after an experiment about the experiment's purposes and methods
Obedience experiments (Milgram) series of experiments conducted during the 60's by stanley milgram; tested subjects' willingness to cause pain to another person if instructed to do so
Prison simulation study (Zimbardo) study by standford psychologist where college students were placed in role as either prisoner or guard; found human readiness to become cruel
Tearoom Trade study laud humphreys investigated social background of men who engage in homosexual behavior in public facilities; did not obtain informed consent.
Tuskegee syphilis study U.S. government study that deliberately left some african american men untreated.
Alternate-forms reliability survey yields same results even when questions are asked in different order or in a different way
Closed-ended (fixed-choice) question survey question that provides preformatted response choices for the respondent to circle or check
Concept mental image that summarizes a set of similar observations, feelings, or ideas
Conceptualization process of specifying what we mean by a term
Constant a number that has a fixed value in a given situation; a characteristic or value that doesn't change
Construct validity validity that is established by showing that a measure is related to other measures as specified in a theory
Content validity validity that exists when the full range of a concepts meaning is covered by the measure
Criterion validity validity that is established by comparing scores obtained on the measure being validated to those obtained with a more direct or already validated measure of the same phenomenon
Level of measurement the mathematical precision with which the values of a variable can be expressed; includes nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio
Open-ended question survey question to which the respondent replies in his own words
Operationalization the process of specifying the operations that will indicate the value of cases on a variable
Predictive validity validity that exists when a measure predicts scores on a criterion measured in the future
Reliability measurement procedure yields consistent scores when phenomenon being measured is not changing
Scale composite measure based on combining the responses to multiple questions pertaining to a common concept after these questions are differentially weighted. questions judged to be more important for the underlying concept contribute more to the score
Split-halves reliability reliability achieved when responses to the same questions by two randomly selected halves of a sample are about the same
Test-retest reliability reliability of scores on a test or survey over time
Triangulation the use of multiple methods to study one research question
Unobtrusive measure measurement based on physical traces or other data that are collected w/o the knowledge or participation of the individuals or groups that generated the data
Bar chart a graphic for qualitative variables in which the variable's distribution is displayed with solid bars separated by spaces
Cross-tabulation (crosstab) two (or more) variable distribution showing the distribution of one variable for each category of another variable
Data cleaning process of checking data for errors after the data have been entered in a computer file
Descriptive statistics statistics used to describe the distribution of and relationship among variables
Frequency distribution numerical display showing the number of cases and percentages of cases corresponding to each value or group of values
Inferential statistics statistics used to estimate how likely it is that a statistical result based on data from a random sample is representative of the population
Mean weighted average computed by adding value of all the cases and dividing by total number of cases
Measure of association a type of descriptive statistic that summarizes the strength of an association
Median the point that divides a distribution in half
Mode (probability average) most frequent value in a distribution
Normal distribution symmetric distribution shaped like a bell and centered around the population mean
Range the true upper limit in a distribution minues the true lower limit
Secondary data analysis analysis of data collected by someone other than the researcher
Skewness the extent to which cases are clustered more at one end or the other rather than being normally distributed
Standard deviation square root of the average squared deviation of each case from the mean
Statistical significance mathematical likelihood that an association is not due to chance
Variance statistic that measures the variability of a distribution as the average squared deviation of each case from the mean
Created by: awamba94