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Nutrition FCS 6

Chp1,Chp2 & Chp3, Midterm

What is Nutrition? The study of food including: How food nourish our bodies and influences our health. Is relatiive new discipline of science. T/F?True
What years for recognition of carbohydrates, proteins, some minerals?____ 1775-1825. T/F?True
Links between diet, weight & chornic disease in what year?_____ 1948 present. T/F?True
What are Nutrients: CHemicals in foods that our bodies need for health & growth. Key tip: We cannot make these in our body and must obtain them in the diet. T/F?True
MACROnutrients: nutrients required in relatively LARGE amounts. Key tip: Provide energy (fuel) to our bodies. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins. T/F?True
MICROnutrients: nutrients required in relatively SMALL amounts. Key tip: Vitamins & Minerals. T/F?True
Organic nutrients: nutrients that CONTAINS the element CARBON. Hint: carbohyrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins. T/F?True
Inorganic nutrients: nutrients that DOES NOT CONTAINS the element CARBON. Hint: Mineral & Water. T/F?True
3 Componets of "Energy Nutrients"? Carbohydrate, Lipids, Protein Hint: The "gasoline" for your engine. T/F?True
Energy measured as heat energy as heat energy. The unit of measurement for this is the____ calorie. Shortened form of the word "kilocalorie". T/F?True
Energy Value of the energy nutrients. Carbohydrates: contains how many kcal per gram 4 kcal per gram hint: 1/4 teasppon of white sugar weighs about 1 gram. T/F?True
Lipids (Fat): contains how many kcal per gram 9 kcal per gram Hint: less than 1/4 tsp of oil weigh 1 gram. T/F?True
Proteins: contains how many kcal per gram 4 kcal per gram Hint: 1/4 of an egg white would contain one gram of protein. T/F?True
Classes of Nutrients: Carbohydrates: Include sugars and starches. Hint: Fiber belong to the category of carbohydrate but does not provide energy. T/F?True
Lipids: Insoluble in water . An important energy source during rest or low intensity exercise. Provide 9 kcal per gram. stored as adipose tissue (body fat). T/F?True
Proteins: Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nirtogen proteins can supply 4 kcal of energy per gram, but are not a primary energy sourcec. protein are important for: Building Regulation Immunity T/F?True
Vitamins: Vitamin are organic molecules that assit in regulations body processes: Buliding and maintaing healthy bones & tissue Support immune system ensure healthy vision Hint: Vitamins does not supply energy to our bodies. T/F?True
Minerals: Mineral are inorgainc substance required for body processes. minerals function: fluid regulation, energy production, bone structure, muscle and nerve fuctioning Ex: iron, calicium, sodium, iodine. T/F?True
Water: Inorganic nutrient, essential, for survival Inolved in many body processes: fluid balance and nutrient transport body temnpreature removal of wastes chemical reaction. T/F?True
Nutrient Density: Nutrient Density is measure of the nutrient a food provide a food provides compared to its energy content. A nutrient-dnese diet is a healthy diet. Hint: Broccoili has more nutrient-dense than French Fries. T/F?True
Looking for difference in diseases in different populations is a branch of medicine called Epidemiology. T/F?True
Studies suggest an association betwwen factors, but cannot prove cause and effects Epidemiolocial. T/F?True
RDAs-Recommeded Dieatary Allowances & AI*: These are the optimum intakes for nutrients, based on current research RDA- based on through research on a significant number of subjects- more confidence in the result AI*- based on less data, thus more of an "educated guss". Revised as needed. T/F?T
RDA & AI* pt2 set a level well above the minimum need: optimum intended for use with healthy people repersent different age/gneder groups designed to prevent dieficiency diseases & chronic diseases.
Tolerable Upper Intake Level Abbrevited "UL" is Upper Limit Key Tip:Suggest's the maximum safe intake of a nutrient, Above these levels, toxicity may occur. T/F?True
Nutrition Guidelines: The tools for designing a healthful deit include: Food Labels Dietary Giudlines My Plate Other Diet Plans
Dietary Guidelines: Dietary Guidelines for Americans Develope by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S Dept. of Health and Human Services Update every 5 years Most recent update was in 2010 Translate into individual plans with http://www.choosemyplate.gov. T/F?True
Other Deit Plans: Originate to fit different health needs Support by research on benifits Ex: The Dash Diet Plan Harvard Health Eating Pyramid/Health Eating Plate. T/F?True
Dash Deit Plan: Dietary Approches to stoop Hypertension Similar to My Plate: lot-fat; high fiber Eating a low sodium diet, high fruits & vegetables reduce blood presure & decreases risk for heart diease & stoke. T/F?True
Food Values: Food labesl list amounts of certain Macro & Micronutrients These nutrients are expressed as Daily value. Daily Value is the amount of nutrient in a food shown as a percentage of the recommedation for a person cosuming a 2000 kcalorie diet. T/F?True
Overview of the Digestive System pt1 Digestion:process of breaking food into components small to be absorbed by the body. Absorption: process of taking substances into the interior of the body. Gastrointestinal tract: hollow tube consisting of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach..T/F?Tr
Overview of the Digestive System pt2 small intestine, large intestine,& Anus. Feces: body waste, include unabsorbed food residue, bacteria & dead cells. T/F?True
"Digestive Secretions" Digestion inside the GI tract is assisted by digestive secretions. Mucus: mucus moistens, lubricates & protects the GI tract. Enzymes: protein molecules that speed up chemical reactions; enzymes are not changed during reactions. Acid (stomach) & alkaline(pancreas) juices Hormones. T/F?True
General sequence of events Mouth: Chewing- physical grinding of food. Secretes saliva moistens food Contains an enzyme that begins digesting starch. T/F?True
Esophgus Transport tube from mouth to stomach. "Bolus" of food is propelled via peristalsis There are no digestive enzymes in esophagus. Junction of esophagus & stomach is guarded by sphincter muscle: Keeps stomach contents from refluxing into esophagus. T/F?
Stomach Holding tank- minimal digestion takes place here.Enzyme action of the stomach is helpful but not essential. Stomach cells: produce mucus to protect self from digestion Chyme: the mixture of food & gastric (stomach) secretions found in the stomachT/F?Tru
Small intestine pt2 The most important area for digestion & absorption 3 segments: Duodenum Jejunnum ileum: Designed to maximize surface area for nutrient absorption. Most digestion & virtually all nutrient absorption occur here.T/F?True
Small intestine pt2 Vocabulary: Mucosa: inner lining of intestine (covered with fold) Vill: finger like projection on the surface of the mucosa. Microvill (brush boder): hair like projections on the surface of the vill. T/F?True
Source of the digestive chemicals in the small intestine: Gallbladder Pancreas Cell lining the intestine. T/F?True
Pancreas Organ with 2 major functions: 1. Produces hormones unrelated to digestion: insulin & glucagon- regulated blood sugar. 2. Produces digestive secretions. T/F?True
Pancreas produces: Powerful digestive enzymes that break down: Carbohydrate Lipid Protein 2. Bicarbonate (alkaline juice that neutralizes stomach acid). T/F?True
Intestinal wall enzymes: Additional digestive enzymes are secreted by the lining the small intestine to "finish off" digestion. T/F?True
Transport of nutrient after absorption Water soluble nutrients: travels via portal vein (blood) to liver & then to other organs & tissues Fat soluble nutrients: enter lacteals in small intestine & then travel via lymphatic system to bloodstream
Large intestine Does not directly participate in digestion.Can absorb water & some vitamins & minerals. Contains the colon & the rectum. Bacteria reside in colon. *Type & proportion are unique to human gut *Vital for our health *Partially degrade fiber. T/F?True
Large intestine pt2 *Have regular & protective effects *should not attempt to 'cleanse' or remove. T/F?True
Metabolism of Energy Nutrients Release sun's energy trapped in chemical bonds. T/F?True Energy reactions is converted into ATP. ATP is the energy currency of the cell.
Energy nutrients are broken down to get the sun's energy out of their bonds "Carbohydrates" Glucose inside the cells broken down to Acetyl-CoA via process called "glycolysis". T/F?True
Energy nutrients are broken down to get the sun's energy out of their bond "Proteins" Amino Acids inside the cells broken down to Acetyl-CoA via process called "demination". T/F?True
Energy nutrients are broken down to get the sun's energy out of their bond "Lipid' Fatty acids inside the cells broken down to Acetyl-CoA via process called "beta-oxidation". T/F?True
Summary Of Metabolism Step 1: Creation of Acetyl CoA Glucose-glycolysis- make a little ATP here (anaerobic) Fatty acid- beta oxidation Amino acid- demination. T/F?True
Step 2: Citric Acid Cycle Starts with acetyl CoA Takes place in mitochondia - requires oxygen (aerobic) make a little ATP here Carbons exit as CO2. T/F?True
Step 3: Electron Transport Chain Hydrogen have their energy removed here. Takes place in mitochondia- require oxygen (aerobic) make a lot of ATP here. Hydrogen made into H2O. T/F?True
Summary of catabolism (breakdown) of energy nutrients All carbon atoms from energy nutrients ends up being breathed out as Co2 gas All hydrogen atoms end up being incorporated into water molecules (H2O). T/F?True
Summary of catabolism (breakdown) of energy nutrients pt2 Part of the available energy in the molecular bonds is captured in high-energy bonds of ATP for use in the cell. Energy from the bonds that is not captured escape as heat Oxygen is required for most of the steps. T/F?True
Summary of catabolism (breakdown) of energy nutrients pt3 Most steps take place inside the mitochondria of the cell: ATP production Inputs: Glucose, Fatty acids, Amino acids Output: CO2, Water(H2O), ATP, heat. T/F?True
Created by: clardy rodney