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Chapter 2 L.S

The Human Body In Health & Disease

QuestionAnswer
abdominal cavity The cavity within the abdomen, the space between the abdominal wall and the spine.
adenectomy Surgical excision of a gland
adenocarcinoma a cancer originating in glandular tissue
adenoma non-cancerous tumors that can grow on the glands
adenomalacia abnormal softening of a gland
adenosclerosis hardening of a gland
anaplasia Reversion of cells to an immature or a less differentiated form, as occurs in most malignant tumors
anatomy the science that studies the structure of the body
anomaly marked deviation from normal, especially as a result of congenital or hereditary defects
anterior situated near or toward the head or part most nearly corresponding to a head
aplasia lack of development of an organ or tissue
bloodborne transmission one of the ways some viruses are spread
caudal syndrome is a disorder that impairs the development of the lower (caudal) half of the body.
cephalic presentation is a situation at childbirth where the fetus is in a longitudinal lie and the head enters the pelvis first
chromosomes a long, stringy aggregate of genes that carries heredity information and is formed from condensed chromatin.
communicable disease It is an illness caused by an infectious agent, such as bacteria, virus, fungi or parasites and/or toxin
congenital disorder is a condition existing at birth and often before birth, or that develops during the first month of life
cytoplasm the substance that fills the cell. It is a jelly-like material that is eighty percent water and usually clear in color
distal it refers to parts of the body further away from the center.
dorsal Of, toward, on, in, or near the back or upper surface of an organ, part, or organism
dysplasia abnormality of development
endemic a disease occurs frequently and at a predictable rate in a specific location or population
endocrine glands glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood rather than through a duct
epidemic affecting or tending to affect a disproportionately large number of individuals within a population, community, or region at the same time
epigastric region the part of the abdomen in the upper zone between the right and left hypochondriac regions.
etiology the study of the causes of diseases
exocrine glands are glands that secrete their products into ducts
functional disorder disorder showing symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified
genetic disorder an illness caused by abnormalities in genes or chromosomes, especially a condition that is present from before birth
geriatrician A physician who specializes in geriatrics.
hemophilia a group of bleeding disorders in which it takes a long time for the blood to clot
histology the study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals.
homeostasis The ability or tendency of an organism or cell to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes.
hyperplasia increased cell production in a normal tissue or organ
hyphertrophy an increase in mass or girth, of a muscle can be induced by a number of stimuli. The most familiar of these is exercise.
hypogastric region The lower part of the abdomen
hypoplasia A condition of arrested development in which an organ or part remains below the normal size or in an immature state
iatrogenic illness effects of medical treatment by a physician or surgeon.
idiopathic disorder any disease arising from internal dysfunctions of unknown cause
infectious disease also known as transmissible diseases or communicable diseases comprise clinically evident illness
inguinal either the groin or the lower lateral regions of the abdomen.
medial toward the middle or center
mesentery the double layer of peritoneum that suspends the jejunum and ileum from the posterior wall of the abdomen
midsagittal plane a plane passing through the nasion when the skull is oriented in the Frankfurt horizontal
nosocomial infection Any infection acquired while in a hospital or healthcare setting
pandemic occurring over a wide geographic area and affecting an exceptionally high proportion of the population
pelvic cavity a body cavity that is bounded by the bones of the pelvis
peritoneum thin membrane that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities, and covers most abdominal viscera
peritonitis an inflammation (irritation) of the peritoneum, the thin tissue that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers most of the abdominal organs
phenylketonuria is a rare condition in which a baby is born without the ability to properly break down an amino acid called phenylalanine
physiology the scientific study of function in living systems
posterior Further back in position; of or nearer the rear or hind end
proximal nearest to a point of reference, as to a center or median line or to the point of attachment or origin.
retroperitoneal space is the anatomical space in the abdominal cavity behind the parietal peritoneum.
stem cells are cells found in most, if not all, multi-cellular organisms
thoracic cavity The second largest hollow space of the body. It is enclosed by the ribs, the vertebral column, and the sternum, or breastbone
transverse plane Any plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts, roughly perpendicular to spine.
umbilicus the navel; the scar marking the site of attachment of the umbilical cord in the fetus.
ventral Relating to or situated on or close to the abdomen; abdominal
vector-borne indirect transmission of an infectious agent that occurs when a vector bites or touches a person.
transmission the passing of a communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a conspecific individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected
Created by: 352670