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HIT 220 Ch. 1

Introduction to Computer Systems for HIT Ch. 1

specialty software used to facilitate the assignment of diagnostic and procedural codes encoders
computer software program that assigns appropriate DRGs according to the info provided for each episode of care DRG grouper
a confederation of Internet servers that support documents formatted in a computer language World Wide Web
the overseers that perform clinical research to ensure that patient data are collected confidentially and that patients are treated with respect during the study Institutional Review Boards (IRB's)
the computer's brain or the circuits that make the electrical parts function central processing unit (CPU)
measurement of computer operating speed megahertz (MHz)
temporary memory cache memory
long-term memory a common unit of how memory is measured in a computer random access memory (RAM)
can handle thousands of users or many networks of users simultaneously mainframe computers
client computer laptop computer
handheld device popular in the healthcare setting because it is small and can be carried in a pocket personal digital assistant (PDA)
(jump drive) removable data storage device impervious to scratches and dust flash drives
plastic encased discs that use a finely focused laser beam to write and read data compact discs (CD's)
similar to a CD except these hold more data Digital Video Disc (DVD)
larger than the DVD capacity Blue-Ray disc
1,000 kilobytes megabyte
1,000 megabytes gigabyte
major input device keyboard
used for PDA's and laptops as a pointing device stylus
perform various tasks within the computer and with certain software function keys
capitalizes letters shift key
used to eliminate any text or characters to the right of the cursor's position Delete key
used to delete any character that is to the left of the cursor Backspace key
a primary key that is used to signal to the computer the end of a paragraph and the end of any command Enter key
a toggle switch key can insert and replace text if it is toggled between on/off mode Insert key
spacing purposes Tab key
used when the user wants to move a step back within a screen or program or quit a screen or program entirely ESC key
either used alone or with the Alt key so that the contents of the monitor's screen can be printed Print Screen key
enable movement through a document one page at a time Page Up and Page Down keys
With the Ctrl key pressed takes the user to the very beginning or the very end of the document Home and End keys
move the cursor in the direction of the arrows Arrow keys
a peripheral input device used by pointing the hand to correspond with movement on the computer screen mouse
emits an electronic signal and an image on the screen at the exact spot where the pen touches think "Jeopardy" light pen
similar to the light pen in that it works by touch of the fingertip onto the monitor screen touch screen
used to present the images or data to the user (touch screen) graphical user interface (GUI)
both an input and output device; converts characters and text to digital data digitizes data so that it can be read, analyzed, and stored by a computer scanner
used to take still pictures that are then converted to a digital format Digital cameras
an input device used to capture and send video images webcam
enables a user to input voice directly into the computer microphone
a device that smaller computer devices such as PDA's or palmtops will rest in as data are uploaded into the workstation PC docking station
"barcoding" This process is used to index documents scanned within an optical disc imaging system Optical character recognition (OCR)
3 main parts of a personal computer CPU Memory Storage devices
the processor or central processor measured in gigahertz (GHz) makes the computer work or process functions CPU "the brain"
contain only memory for storage capacity memory chips
2 areas of the CPU control area arithmetic/logic area
memory that has been programmed onto a chip at the factory and cannot be changed Read-only memory (ROM)
a temporary memory within the computer that is basically used when the computer need to borrow memory cache
small disk files that contain software does taht are instructions for the computer and are the first files that a computer reads when "booting up" system files
arranges data to travel in serial form or one bit at a time serial port
unidirectional ports set up to send parallel data parallel port
used for connecting devices such as flash drives, digital cameras, and iPods USB ports
a port to allow the wiring of the PC to a phone line so that the computer can connect to the Internet and for facsimile purposes modem
similar to a USB port can handle 63 devices and or typically used for camcorders, DVD players, and digital audio equipment FireWire port
used to transmit data by infrared light waves files can be transferred without the use of wires Infrared Data Association (IrDA) port
uses radio waves as its signals Bluetooth port
Wireless Application Protocol cards are sued as the input data Wireless Markup Language (WML)
needed to translate images or pictures from electrical currents onto the monitor or screen video card
enables the computer to reproduce sound from electrical currents for speakers, headphones, the microphone, and input from peripheral devices sound card
a bus architecture that can route data at greater than 8 gigabytes per second in each direction within the bandwidth this greater bandwidth is used for applications such as streaming video and photo editing PCI-Express (PCI-E)
permits the communication inside the comput4ers components within the memory internal bus
allows communication with external devices such as a printer or scanner external bus
contains the lines or unique address of the data's destination address bus
a bank of electrical bits; these are actual data data bus
a traffic cop within the computer, directing the electrical traffic so that it does not stop or slow down bus
measured in dpi or dots per inch resolution
arranged in dots or squares and typically 3 or 4 colors, such as some combination of red, green, blue, magenta, yellow and black pixel
uses pixels that are wedged between thin plastic layers of electric current or electrodes, making the pixels translucent and resulting in a bright image Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screen
similar to LCD screens; the grid arrangement uses subpixels plasma screen
1 million pixels megapixel
originally similar to the underscore and would blink at the user cursor
impact nonimpact printers
a printing mechanism that makes a series of dots per inch (DPI) dot matrix printer
use energy from a fast, flashing laser light source to create the images on a special drum; from static electricity, the ink powders are transferred to the sheet of paper Laser printers
use heat to transfer the ink onto the sheet of paper or other medium Thermal printers
use tiny nozzles to spray the ink onto the sheet of paper Ink jet printers
used to display a presentation on a screen to a large audience or classroom data projector
the angle of the image is projected slightly tilted in any direction keystoning
optical disk technology format data cannot be altered or misfiled on health records once it has been permanently etched onto a laser disk with WORM techology write once read many (WORM)
etched by a laser onto a disc platter offers record usage to multiusers optical disc
digitizes documents on laser discs to capture, store, retrieve, process, distribute, and print information. use a computer, a scanner, a magnetic disc, a file server, optical disc platters, a jukebox, and a printer optical disc systems
optical disc system advantages quick access to data multiple users simultaneously security levels documents cannot be lost or misplaced documents cannot be altered
the instructions that make a computer work the instructions that direct the computer in its operation, regulate the hardware, and allow several programs to run simultaneously operating systems
Linux,an alternative to Windows free and open source software (FOSS)
involves the computer CPU, or brain, working to timeshare tasks so that several functions can be done at once multitasking
a specific type of software that is made to interact with hardware devices device driver
used when an application is used for the entire facility, such as applications involving e-mail, network security issues, and the internet enterprise software
the operating systems and the applications programming languages
a basic unit of storage within a computer 0 or 1 bit
a string of 8 numbers byte
1000 gigabytes terabyte
FORTRAN - formula translator COBOL - common business-oriented language BASIC - Beginner's all-purpose symbolic Instruction Code MUMPS - Massachusetts General Hospital Utility Multi Programming System Programming languages
programming language that is an offshoot of C and C++ write once, compile once, and run it anywhere program Java
tag as a header tag as a footer HTML
this is the way the computer encodes text markup
text-based on international standards advanced version of HTML Extensible Markup Language (XML)
one of the first languages developed and was primarily intended for use in text and database publishing Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)
serves numerous workstation computers at a single site or remotely where all the computers on a network connect hub computer
a network that does not use a central server or hub, and all the computers perform duties at the same time peer-to-peer network
a security device that controls access from the Internet to a local network firewall
provide firewall security for networks and route data between networks using Internet Protocol addresses routers
large networks that could run hundreds of computers in various counties or states client/server networks
computers that are located within a local area and are networked to a host server local area network (LAN)
not geographically located near each other wide area networks (WAN)
a connection between a computer and a network can also be a connection between 2 or more networks interface
Ethernet switches and hubs turn signals on and off as the data move through cables to each node or workstation star network
a bridge between digital and analog signals that converts data on and off modulates and demodulates modem
used for computers with a telephone connection only and Internet service through the local telephone company dial-up modem
connects to a PC and a cable-ready television using the cable television pathway cable television modems
uses the telephone lines but also uses pure digital signals digital subscriber line (DSL)modem
has a large capacity, so there is no waiting for signals and accessing the Internet is instant broadband bandwidth
a device for plug-in for the PC, laptop, or PDA to communicate to the network wireless network interface card wireless card
the computers that are networked together are lined up on a single cable bus network
similar to a ring or circle of computers in the network. There is no beginning or end within the loop. data flow around this circle until it reaches the exact computer address that it is meant to reach token ring network
hierarchical network the main computer is the root or the first level; the next level of computers that are connected is the 2nd level. must have 3 levels tree network
any combination of networks that can work together star-bus star-tree hybrid network
connects each computer to the next in a series daisy chain network
a private network that is available for their own employees and authorized persons. the firewall security to restrict unauthorized users is primarily what distinguishes it from the Internet intranet
an Internet system that allows selected external users limited access to private networks extranet
manages the financial activities of a healthcare facility financial applications
limited to a monitor and keyboard bare minimum of hardware uses the server's PC to perform all functions dummy terminals
the brain of the PC and performs all functions of the computer where the system files are located hard drive
Created by: adale3171