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FSHN 150- Unit 4

iron functions (2) transport protein for oxygen and carbon dioxide, enzyme cofactor (metabolism/antioxidant)
iron deficiency anemia (very common)
causes of iron deficiency deficient diets, blood loss (menstruation, gut infections)
iron toxicity found in children & alcoholics
heme iron 25% absorption, found in flesh foods
non-heme iron 5% absorption, found in plants
iron absorption can be decreased by coffee, tea, fiber
fluoride anomaly not proven essential
fluoride function hardens teeth and bone
fluoride deficiency teeth discoloration, death
famous Dr. in fluoride Dr. Frederick McKay (Colo Spgs; mottled but hard teeth)
water fluoridation pros widely supported, cheap way to prevent tooth decay
water fluoridation cons toxicity?, unnecessary? (overwhelmingly false)
zinc function cofactor for >70 enzymes
zinc deficiency dwarfism
phytates bind & excrete zinc (found in grains/legumes) -> vegetarians must eat a lot of zinc
storage anomaly of zinc not mobilized (from bone) during deficiency
false claims of zinc colds, stress -> impairs iron absorption, elevates LDL, lowers HDL, impaired immune response
copper functions (4) collagen, antioxidant, energy metabolism, iron transport
copper deficiency anomaly RDA too high- marginal deficiencies not true
selenium function indirect antioxidant
selenium deficiency heart disease
selenium deficiency liver damage
selenium unfounded claims doesn't cure cancer, CVD, sexual dysfunction, eyesight, aging
enzyme cofactor minerals (for what; toxicity?) Manganese (energy) , Molybdenum (protein) toxicity only seen in miners
ultratrace minerals (4) nickel, silicon, tin, vanadium (cofactors) -> no RDA
structural minerals (2) sulfur (AA, B vitamins) cobalt (B 12)
magnesium function (5) ATP, nerve impulses, muscle contraction, bone & teeth, cofactor for >300 enzymes
magnesium deficiency alcoholics, GI disturbances, critically ill individuals
chromium functions (2) glucose tolerance factor, fat/cholesterol metabolism
chromium deficiency diabetes-like condition, high blood cholesterol
frothy top of beer is from chromium!
BMI wt(kg)/ht(m)^2
>___ = "obese" (BMI) 30
J-shaped curve catch-22 could be a flat, then linear curve (10 lbs underweight is not bad)
% fat for men 7-20%
% fat for women 15-30%
4 methods for assessing body fat underwater weighing, skinfold, research methods, easy methods
easy methods for assessing body fat (3) pinch >1", waist >chest, ruler across hipbones (should sit flat)
BMR basal metabolic rate- breathing & heartbeat (70% of energy expenditure)
TEF thermic effect of food- 10% of energy to digest
EIT exercise-induced thermogenesis (20-70% of energy expenditure)
NEAT non-exercise induced thermogenesis
BAT brown adipose tissue- found on babies backs for warmth; energy burned as heat and not energy
brown adipocytes protein that uncouples ox/phos w/ ATP production; has more mitochondria
bomb calorimeter measures kcal from food
lab calorimetry (2) whole-room calorimeter, back-pack gas monitor
approx. method of measuring energy balance 0.9 or 1.0 kcal/kg/hr + 45-85% BMR for activity
android fat around abdomen (male)
gynoid fat around hips (female)
hypothalamus regulates and monitors fat mass
set-point theory the hypothalamus regulates fat, so one stays at a constant BMI
liposuction removed fat returns to the upper body
early overeating production of fat cells, very hard to decrease later
enzyme theory high LPL -> XS fat accumulation (probably the reverse in most cases)
leptin mice- leptin deficiency= overweight humans- don't respond to treatment (leptin- resistant tissues)
UCPs uncoupling proteins- lean humans have more UCP, so XS kcal burned off as heat
various genes & other factors vs. obesity genes, microflora may contribute to obesity (~70 found so far)
lack of exercise disregulates food intake; BMR elevated after exercise
___ of people in the US are obese 30%
_____ of people in the US are overweight 50%
ketone bodies produced during starvation -> provide CNS w/ energy to spare muscle protein
a weight-loss diet should (4) provide CHO, provide protein, mobilize TG, incorporate exercise
fasting lose fat & LBM
low- CHO diets difficult to become ketotic; lypolysis blocked by protein/fat consumption; LBM lost; atherogenic
VLCD (very low-calorie diets)-> 500 kcal; very nutrient dense; fast weight loss (requires medical supervision)
gastric bypass surgery reduces stomach size; small portions only
ideal restricted kcal -1/3
"diets that work" (5) high CHO, low fat, breakfast, weigh frequently, physical activity
Clive McKay calorie restriction in rats- longer life w/ optimal nutrition
calorie restrictive diets- critique most people overeat cf. early evolution (food sparse)
fatness acceptance overweight- 1st obesity category OK if regular exercise and non-smoking
number 1 food risk food poisoning
foodborne infection microbe grows in tissues
foodbourne intoxication microbe by-product is toxic
GRAS generally recognized as safe
food radiation safe; expensive; originally done by the US military
___ of cancer is linked to diet 1/3
cancers caused by excess fat breast, colon, prostate
XS kcal and cancer (may explain xs fat & cancer)
lycopene and cancer kills cancer cells in prostate and breasts
4 effects of phytochemicals antioxidants (potent), apoptosis of cancer cells, block growing of cancer clusters, inhibits vascular disease
MEOS microsomal ethanol oxidizing system- metabolizes alcohol
cirrhosis failing of the liver due to alcoholism
ADH (& alcohol) suppresses this-> (anti-diuretic hormone) & causes dehydration
HDL & alcohol elevated & lowers heart attack risk
appetite & alcohol increases appetite
human milk vs. cow/rat lower in protein and fat
nutrient requirements for lactation +500 kcal, +20g protein, +400mg Ca
undernutrition & lactation decreased volume (but not composition)
colostrum very concentrated milk, has immunoglobulins
1st 5 minutes of exercise burn glycogen
prolonged exercise substrate fatty acids
muscle glycogen depletion exhaustion correlates with this
glycogen loading can improve performance 2x
fit people have more mitochondria
glycolysis anaerobic-> fat oxidation blocked
lactic acids results when 2-C units build up in muscle
____ burns in the flame of ____ fat, carbohydrate
carbs right before exercise blocks FA burning (undesirable)
carbs during exercise small amounts (don't want insulin release)
Created by: melaniebeale