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HHS 231 Chapter 8

Muscular Fitness

Muscular fitness The ability of your musculoskeletal system to perform daily and recreational activities without undue fatigue and injury
Muscular strength The ability of a muscle to contract with maximal force
Muscular endurance The ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly over an extended period of time
Resistance training Controlled and progressive stressing of the body's musculoskeletal system using resistance (i.e., weights, resistance bands, body weight) exercises to build and maintain muscular fitness
Tendons The connective tissues attaching muscle to bone
Muscle fibers The cells of the muscular system
Myofibrils Thin strands within a single muscle fiber that bundle the skeletal muscle protein filaments and span the length of the fiber
Slow-twitch muscle fiber Muscle fiber type that is oxygen dependent and can contract over long periods of time
Fast-twitch muscle fiber Muscle fiber type that contracts with greater force and speed but also fatigues quickly
Motor unit A motor nerve and all the muscle fibers it controls
Isotonic A muscle contraction with relatively constant tension
Isometric A muscle contraction with no change in muscle length
Concentric A muscle contraction with overall muscle shortening
Eccentric A muscle contraction with overall muscle lengthening
Sarcopenia The degenerative loss of muscle mass and strength in aging
Muscle power The ability of a muscle to quickly contract with high force
One repetition maximum (1RM) The maximum amount of weights you can lift at one time
Spotter A person who watches, encourages, and if needed, assists a person who is performing a a weight training lift
20 repetition max (20RM) The maximum amount of weight you can lift 10 to 20 times in a row
Calisthenics A type of muscle endurance and/or flexibility exercise that employs simple movements without the use of resistance other than one's own body weight.
Dumbbells Weights intended for use by one hand; typically one hold a dumbbell in each hand
Barbells Long bars with weight plates on each end
Sets Single attempts at an exercise that includes a fixed number of variations
Repetitions The number of times an exercise is performed within one set
Plyometric exercise An exercise that is characterized by a rapid deceleration of the body followed by a rapid acceleration of the body in the opposite direction
Power The ability to produce force quickly
Speed The ability to rapidly accelerate; exercises for speed will increase stride length and frequency
Agility The ability to rapidly change body position or body direction without losing speed, balance, or body control
Multiple-joint exercises Exercises that involve multiple joints and muscle groups to achieve and overall movement
Single-joint exercises Exercises that involve a single joint and typically focus on one muscle group
Valsalva maneuver The process of holding one's breath while lifting heavy weight; this practice can increase chest cavity pressure and result in light-headedness during the lift; excessively increased blood pressure can result after the lift and breaths are released
Ergogenic aids Any nutritional, physical, mechanical, psychological or pharmacological procedure or aid used to improve athletic performance.
Created by: 100000033006215