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HHS 231 Chapter 7

Conditioning Your Cardiorespiratory System

Cardiorespiratory fitness Ability of your cardiovascular and respiratory systems to supply oxygen and nutrients to large muscle groups in order to sustain dynamic activity
Respiratory system Body system responsible for the exchange of gases between the body and the air
Cardiovascular system Body system responsible for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to body tissues and the delivery of CO2 and other wastes back to the heart and lungs
Respiration The exchange of gases in the lungs or in the tissues
Atria Upper chambers of the heart that collect blood from the rest of the body
Ventricles Lower chambers of the heart that pump blood to the rest of the body
Pulmonary circulation Blood circulation from the heart to the lungs and back
Systemic circulation Blood circulation from the heart to the rest of the body and back
Pulmonary artery The artery that carries blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
Aorta Artery that carries blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body
Systole Contraction phase of the heart cycle
Diastole Relaxation phase of the heart cycle
Heart rate Number of beats of the heart in one minute
Arteries High-pressure blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to the lungs or cells
Veins Low-pressure blood vessels that carry blood from the cells or lungs back to the heart
Blood pressure Pressure that blood in the arteries exerts on the arterial walls
Systolic blood pressure Blood pressure during the systole phase of the heart cycle
Diastolic blood pressure Blood pressure during the diastole phase of the heart cycle
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) Cellular form of energy
Creatine phosphate A molecule that's stored in muscle cells and used in the immediate energy system to donate a phosphate to make ATP
Anaerobic Without oxygen (nonoxidative)
Lactic acid An end-product of the nonoxidative breakdown of glucose that can increase acidity in muscles and the blood and can cause muscular fatigue
Mitochondria Cellular structures where oxidative energy production takes place
Aerobic Dependent on oxygen (oxidative)
Homeostasis A stable, constant internal environment
Cardiac output Volume of blood ejected from the heart in one minute; expressed in L or mL/min
Hemoglobin A four-part globular, iron-containing protein that carries oxygen
Plasma The yellow-colored fluid portion of blood that contains water, proteins, hormones, ions, energy sources, and blood gases
Stroke volume The volume of blood ejected from the heart in one heartbeat; expressed in L/mL per beat
Metabolic syndrome A clustering of three or more heart disease and diabetes risk factors in one person (high blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, decreased HDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, overweight with fat mostly around the waist)
Resting heart rate The number of times your heart beats in a minute while the body is at rest; typically 50-90 bpms
Pulse The pressure wave felt in the arteries due to blood ejection with each heartbeat
Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) Highest rate of oxygen consumption your body is capable of during maximal energy; expressed in either L/min or mL/kg*min (millileters per minute per kilogram of body weight)
Maximal heart rate (HR max) Highest heart rate you can achieve during maximal exercise
Internal workout A workout that alternates periods of higher-intensity exercise with periods of lower-intensity exercise or rest
Circuit training workout A workout where exercisers move from one exercise station to another after a certain number of repetitions or amount of time
Perceived exertion A subjective assessment of exercise intensity
Talk test A method of measuring exercise intensity based on assessing your ability to speak during exercise
Target heart rate The heart rate you are aiming for during an exercise session; often a range with high and low heart rates called your training zone
Heart rate reserve (HRR) Number of beats per minute available or in reserve for exercise heart rate increases, maximal heart rate minus resting heart rate
Cross-training The practice of using different exercise modes or types in your cardiorespiratory training program
Warm-up The initial 5- to 20-minute preparation phase of a workout
Cool-down The ending phase of a workout where the body is brought gradually back to rest
Heat cramps Severe cramping in the large muscle groups and abdomen caused by high fluid and electrolyte loss in sustained exertion in the heat
Heat exhaustion An elevated core body temp., headache, fatigue, profuse sweating, nausea, and clammy skin brought on by sustained exertion in the heat with dehydration and electrolyte losses
Heat stroke A core body temp. above 104 degrees F, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rapid pulse, cessation of sweating, and disorientation resulting from extreme exertion in very hot conditions
Hypothermia A condition where the core temp. of the body drops below the level required for sustaining normal body functions
Dehydration A process that leads to a lack of sufficient fluid in the body, affecting normal body functioning
RICE Acronyms for rest, ice, compression, and elevation; a method of treating common exercise injuries
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