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FSHN- Unit 3

complete protein all essential amino acids present in optimal balance
reference protein egg white- 100%
Kjeldhal method measures retained N (N retained/N fed)
PER protein efficiency ratio (g lbm gained/g protein fed)
complementary proteins different vegetable sources- covers limiting amino acids
infants- g protein per kg 2.2
children- g protein per kg 2.0
adults- g protein per kg 0.8
possible benefit of 100g/d of protein stronger immune system
highest quality plant-based food quinoa
kwashiorkor (& symptoms) inadequate protein w/ sufficient kcal edema, stunted growth, infections
marasmus deficiency of all nutrients (muscle wasting)
activation of enzymes (by vitamins) apo- to-holo conversion (turn enzymes on and off)
apo vs. holo off vs. on (respectively)
provitamin eaten as a provitamin, then converted to a vitamin after consumption
Vitamin A- function vision, gene expression
rhodopsin (vitamin A) dim light visual acuity
vitamin A deficiency (4) keratinization, eye problems, growth retardation, sterility
most common (worldly) deficiency vitamin A
keratinization vitamin A deficiency- thickened skin tissue
xerophthalmia degeneration of cornea and conjunctiva (vit A deficiency)
keratomalacia ulceration of cornea (vit A deficiency)
symptoms of vit A deficiency teratogen, hypercarotenosis (turn yellow)
vitamin D function calcium homeostasis, transcription
vit D & transcription drives gene expression for calcium binding proteins
vit D & UV 5-30 mins (10am-3pm) 2x per week (make 1/2 vit D)
vitamin d deficiency (2) rickets, osteomalacia
vitamin e function direct antioxidant (quench ROS)
ROS (free radicals) reactive oxygen species ->damage DNA/RNA, phospholipids, proteins
vitamin E deficiency is usually caused by fat malabsorption syndromes
vit E deficiencies in premies (2) eye degeneration, RBC hemolysis
vit E deficiencies in adults (2) fibrocystic breast disease, intermittent claudication (leg cramps)
vitamin k function blood coagulation
2 classifications of vit k enzyme activity, gene expression
where are A, D, K stored? liver (thus, they're toxic)
sources of vitamin K intestinal bacteria, leafy vegetables
deficiency of vit K primary- rare (secondary; antibiotics, fat malabsorption) *prolonged bleeding
vitamin k antagonist & uses (2) blocks synthesis of k-depending clotting proteins rat poison, blood thinning (for <3 attacks)
B1 chemical name Thiamin
vitamin vs. coenzyme vitaminic= smaller; converted to coenzyme after ingestion
function of Thiamin coenzyme in energy metabolism
edema water retention
deficiency of thiamin beri-beri (confusion, edema, enlarged heart)
thiamin coenzyme TPP
B2 chemical name riboflavin
function of riboflavin oxidation of macronutrients
riboflavin + UV breaks ring structure- no longer functional
riboflavin deficiency (araboflavinosis) cracks around mouth, red & sore skin
B3 chemical name niacin
Niacin coenzymes NADH, NADPH
Niacin function catabolic- macronutrient oxidation anabolic- fat synthesis from XS carbon in liver/adipose
niacin deficiency pellagra (dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia)
pellagra history corn- has niacytin that binds niacin and blocks absorption (south in early 1900s)
what skin does pellagra most commonly affect? above waist-> hands, arms, around neck
niacin equivalents (NE) niacin + (tryptophan/60)
symptom of niacin toxicity flushing
pharmacologic use of niacin treatment of high cholesterol
B6 chemical name pyridoxine
how many vitamers of pyridoxine 6
coenzyme of pyridoxine PLP
function of pyridoxine coenzyme for >100 enzymes amino acid & protein metabolism
storage of pyridoxine large- mobilized by starvation, not deficiency
deficiency of pyridoxine anemia, mental confusion, convulsions
pharmacological uses of pyridoxine PMS, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
toxicity of pyridoxine tremors, numbness
B12 chemical name cobalamin
cobalamin function (3) synthesis of DNA and RNA, 1-C transfer reactions, myelin synthesis
absorption of cobalamin intrinsic factor (too large to be absorbed alone)
homocysteine & cobalamin cobalamin converts it to methionine (homocysteine is toxic @ high levels)
storage of cobalamin 2 years
cobalamin deficiency pernicious anemia (vegans, loss of intrinsic factor) (anemia, dementia, numbness)
cobalamin requirement (anomalies)- 2 not in plant foods, smallest requirement of all nutrients
pernicious anemia cure intramuscular injection of IF
coenzyme form of folic acid THFA
function of folic acid (2) DNA/RNA synthesis amino acid metabolism
deficiency of folic acid (3) anemia, spina bifida, homocysteinemia
if homocysteine builds up... it can lead to vascular disease
spina bifida spinal column doesn't close during pregnancy- exposed and fluid-filled at birth (death eminent)
requirement of folic acid 400 ug/day
lack of folate leads to vascular disease (thus, sat. fat isn't the only nutritional factor)
pantothenic acid function (3) energy metabolism, fatty acid synthesis (of XS C), synthesis of cholesterol, steroid hormones, neurotransmitters
deficiency of pantothenic acid very rare (burning feet- WWII prisoners of war)
biotin function macronutrient metabolism (breakdown of AAs, 2-C units, leucine)
avidin in egg whites- binds biotin and causes deficiency
biotin deficiency dermatitis
chemical name of vitamin C ascorbic acid
function of vitamin C (3) direct antioxidant, coenzyme, non heme iron absorption
vitamin C deficiency scurvy (collagen breakdown -> bleeding... hemorrhage of aorta)
pharmacological uses of vC UTI treatment, decrease cold duration by 20%
5 functions of water transport, lubricant, protectant, temp reg, water balance
water toxicity hyponatremia (lack of sodium)
1 vol bottled water= 2 vol oil
sodium function pumped out of cells- K in (draws water in)
potassium functions (3) water balance, heartbeat, nerve impulses
chloride functions (2) water/electrolyte balance, stomach acid
calcium functions (7) bone, nerve transmission, muscle contraction, blood pressure, blood clotting, cellular adhesion, cofactor
calcium deficiency osteoporosis
max bone density age range 30-45
what vitamin aids calcium absorption? vitamin D
calcium RDA 1000 mg/day
best (cost-effective) Ca supplement calcium carbonate
what disorder does Ca alleviate? PMS
phosphorus functions (2) bone structure, structural component (ATP, phospholipids....)
phosphorus deficiency- most common cause aluminum hydroxide (blocks absorption)
iodine function structural element in thyroid hormones
iodine deficiency goiter (sluggishness, fetal defects)
Created by: melaniebeale