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Grisell Ch 4

Muscular Strength and Endurance

The amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort Muscular Strength
The ability to hold or repeat a muscular contraction Muscular endurance
A single muscle cell , usually classified according to strength, speed of contraction, and energy source Muscle Fiber
Protein structures that make up muscle fibers Myofibrils
An increase in size of muscle fibers, due to strength training Hypertrophy
A decrease in the size of muscle fibers, due to inactivity Atrophy
An increase in the number of muscle fibers Hyperplasia
Red muscle fibers with slow contraction and fatigue resistance, usually for endurance activities; uses aerobic energy system Slow twitch muscle fibers
White muscle fibers with rapid contraction but fatigue quickly, usually for strength and power exercises; uses anaerobic energy system Fast twitch muscle fibers
A nerve connected to one or more muscle fibers Motor Unit
Benefits of strength training Injury prevention, improved body composition, higher metabolism, prevents chronic disease, denser bones,
How strength training prevents chronic disease By improving glucose metabolism, reducing bp, increasing HDL, lowering LDL, improving blood vessel health
Exercise involving a muscle contraction without a change in the muscle's length Isometric / Static
Exercise involving a muscle contraction with a change in the muscle's length Isotonic / Dynamic
A dynamic contraction in which the muscle gets shorter as it contracts Concentric
A dynamic contraction in which the muscle lengthens as it contracts Eccentric
The application of force at a constant speed against an equal force Isokinetic
Frequency of Strength Training 2 nonconsecutive days per week
Intensity of Strength Training 80% of 1RM for strength, 40-60% of 1RM for endurance, 70% for general
Time of exercise for Strength Training 8-12 repetitions, 1 set
Rest period between reps 1-2 minutes
Reps x weight x sets Training Volume
The muscle in a state of contraction Agonist
The muscle that opposes the action of a contrasting muscle Antagonist
Type of exercise for strength training 8-10 different exercises
Connect muscle to bone Tendons
Connect bone to bone Ligaments
A strength exercise that involves the movement of 2 joints Compound exercise
A strength exercise that involves the movement of only 1 joint Simple exercises
Created by: mgrisell