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FSHN 150- Unit 2

enzymes & ingestion enzymes cannot be absorbed as such (absorbed as protein)
enzyme for CHO found in the mouth salivary amylase
salivary amylase converts CHO into ___ dextrins
enzyme for CHO found in small intestine pancreatic amylase
pancreatic amylase converts ___ into ___ dextrins into disaccharides
enterocytes convert ___ into ____ (CHO) disaccharides into monosaccharides
enzymes that break down disaccharides disaccharidases
CHO metabolism in liver fructose/galactose -> glucose
storage amt of glycogen 12 hours
storage amt of fat 1 month
when C-C bonds break, energy is (2) captured as ATP (50%), released as heat (50%)
anaerobic respiration glycolysis (1/15 as much ATP as aerobic) occurs in cytosol
aerobic respiration oxidative phosphorylation occurs in mitochondria
TCA tricarboxylic acid
___ more energy from fat than glucose (during exercise) 3x
gluconeogenesis amino acids in muscle- broken down to glucose for CNS
anabolic builds up
catabolic breaks down
normal blood glucose range 70-99 mg/dL
whole food types of concentrated sugars (3) sugar cane, sugar beets, honey
molasses has a small amount of what essential nutrient? iron (from extraction equipment)
corn syrup starch converted enzymatically to glucose and fructose
high-fructose corn syrup (sweeter than corn syrup) -> converted to have more fructose than glucose
problem with HFCS consumed in high amounts, is lipogenic (inc. blood lipids)
dextrose isolated glucose (from corn syrup)
luvulose isolated fructose (from corn syrup)
____% of American calories come from fructose 12-14% (60g)
>___% of caloric intake from fructose can cause brain/heart disease 15%
which population of people eat the most HFCS? (how much?) hispanic inner-city males- 25%
hypertriglyceridemia chronic high blood triglycerides (risk factor for CHD)
total sugars account for ___% of total kcal 37%
saccharin (name, sweetness, problems (2)) oldest -> sweet 'n low; 300x than sucrose; bladder cancer, bad aftertaste
aspartame (made of, name, problems (2)) phenylalanine & aspartic acid Equal heat sensitive, PKU can't eat it (phenylalanine)
cyclamate (problems (2)) (illegal in US) causes cancer, short shelf life
sugar alcohols (3, composition, benefit, problem) sorbitol, manitol, xylitol additional hydroxy group doesn't cause cavities (bacteria can't metabolize it) causes diarrhea
sucralose (name, composition, benefit) splenda, added Cl, heat-stable
stevia (name, extract) Truvia, S. American plant extract
agave nectar primarily fructose and glucose
Olestra a fat substitute
beri beri thiamin deficiency (white rice consumption in Asia)
US Enrichment Act flours must be enriched with Fe, B1, B2, B3 (still less nutritious)
hypoglycemia low blood sugar (too much insulin causes temporary low blood glucose)
spontaneous hypoglycemia rare & serious -> excessive insulin production (seizures, unconsciousness)
type 1 diabetes 5-10% of diabetics (pancreas fails to produce insulin)
type 2 diabetes 90-95% of diabetics (tissues become resistant to insulin -> pancreas over-secretes insulin)
diseases caused by diabetes heart disease, stroke, blindness, peripheral vascular disease
Syndrome X high blood glucose, high blood pressure, low HDL, elevated glucose, elevated triglycerides, abdominal obesity
lactose intolerance bacteria split lactose in colon- flatulence, bloating, diarrhea
world frequency of lactose intolerance 80%
northern European lactose intolerance 10%
US avg lactose intolerance 15%
dental caries bacterial acid released if CHO present- causes cavities
glycemic index (blood glucose area under curve for 50g test food)/(blood glucose area under curve for 50g of glucose)
glycemic load adjusts GI for varying CHO in foods (GI x CHO content)
high & low GI <55, >70
high & low GL <15, >20
# (& names) of fat soluble vitamins 4 (ADEK)
# of carbons in saturated fats 16 or 18
# of carbons in unsaturated fats 18 or 20
name of Ω-6 FA linoleic acid
name of Ω-3 FA alpha linolenic acid
# of possible carbons in FAs 4-24 (even #s)
naming convention of essential fatty acids dbl bond is x # of carbons from methyl end
two functions of essential fatty acids membrane fluidity, can be converted to eicosanoids
structure of triglycerides glycerol + 3 FAs
what % of lipids are triglycerides? 95%
structure of phospholipids 2 FAs, glycerol- 3rd C w/ phosphate & N-containing base
what % of lipids are phospholipids? 3%
function of phospholipids cell membrane bilipid layer
structure of sterols (cholesterol) 4 fused rings
functions of cholesterol (4) membrane fluidity, sex hormones, vitamin D, bile synthesis
the more unsaturated the diet... the more unsaturated your tissue is
rancidity is caused by oxygenation
rancidity is prevented by hydrogenation
trans fats are banned in New York City
cis vs. trans structure cis- carbons on same side of dbl bond trans- carbons on opposite side of dbl bond
how things are hydrogenated hydrogen is added under pressure
eicosanoids hormone-like regulatory compounds
18:2 EFA omega-6
18:3 EFA omega-3
length of eicosanoids 20-24 Cs
5 biological effects of eicosanoids blood pressure, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, airways, immune system
COX (cyclooxygenase) convertes n-3 & n-6 into eicosanoids
arachidonic acid from n-6 FAs (to make eicos. #1)
eicosanoid #1 thromboxane A2 increases platelet aggregation & blood vessel contraction (increased risk of heart attack)
EPA ratio 20:5 n-3
DHA ratio 22:6 n-3
eicosanoid #2 prostacyclin L2 increases platelet disaggregation & blood vessel dialation
EPA and DHA are synthesized w/ ___ efficiency 1-2%
EPA & DHA are termed long chain Ω-3 FAs
4 health benefits of EPA & DHA blocks heart attacks, blocks early baby delivery, lowers blood TG, lowers pain from rheumatoid arthritis
Americans eat what ratio of Ω-6 to Ω-3 15:1
humans should eat ____ (ratio) Ω-6 to Ω-3 2:1
3 sources of EPA & DHA (& 1 insufficient) cold water fish, eggs from fish-fed hens, supplements -> flax
recommended intake of Ω-3 FAs 500 mg
___% of kcal are required as essential fatty acids 3%
high blood cholesterol is caused by high TG intake (90% of Americans)
enterogastrone decreases motility of stomach lining (slower emptying)
composition of bile cholesterol, AAs, lecithin
lingual lipase from salivary glands
phospholipids are broken down by lysolecithinase
cholesterol is broken down by cholesterol esterase
chylomicrons carry diet fat via lymph
LPL on inside of blood vessels- removes dietary TGs from passing CMs
adipocytes energy storage for all tissues
myocytes energy storage for muscle during exercise
time it takes for LPL to clear all CMs of TGs ~3 hours
VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) transports TG + cholesterol + CM remnant through blood (LPL extracts)
LDL very high in cholesterol (VLDL remnant) -> delivers cholesterol to rest of body **causes atherosclerosis
HDL synthesized from CM remnant, removes cholesterol from cells
3 major fat sources for Americans fats/oils, flesh foods, dairy
ratio of different fats (dietary) 1:1:1 (10% from each)
dyslipidemia high blood cholesterol and/or high blood TGs
athersclerosis characterized by plaque that accumulates on inside of vessel walls -> hardening of arteries
plaque constituents cholesterol, Ca, clots
coronary heart disease when thrombus gets stuck in heart arteries, blocks blood flow
thrombus blood clot
ischemia tissue death
angina pain in chest/arm -> warning sign of atherosclerosis
occlusive stroke restricted blood delivery
hemorrhagic stroke pressure buildup -> blood vessel bursts -> compresses surrounding tissue
top 2 risk factors for CVD smoking, high blood pressure (nutrition 3rd-5th)
low risk blood cholesterol <200 mg/dL
borderline risk blood cholesterol 200-240 mg/dL
high risk blood cholesterol >240 mg/dL (300= dangerous)
benefit of polyunsaturated fat lowers blood cholesterol
benefit of soluble fiber (in lipid context) lowers blood cholesterol (binds & blocks reabsorption of bile)
amino acids are connected by peptide bonds
how many amino acids? 20
constituents of amino acids (4) amino group, acid group, carbon backbone, r-group
8 essential amino acids leucine, isoleucine, valine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan
2 semi-essential amino acids arginine, histidine
when are conditionally essential amino acids essential? rapid growth of lean body mass
how many different proteins are there? (in humans) 100,000
stomach's role in protein digestion acid denatures proteins
pepsin digestive enzyme for proteins in stomach
peptides smaller fragments made in stomach from proteins
proteases (2 sources) split peptides into amino acids (pancreas, enterocytes)
lean body mass total protein mass of body
what % of body weight is lean body mass? 40-45%
nitrogen and protein bodily nitrogen's only source is protein N x 6.25 = protein
central dogma DNA-RNA-protein
transcription in nucleus
translation in cytoplasm
what % of energy does "central dogma" use up? 25%
5 uses of proteins growth/maintenance, enzymes, antibodies, fluid balance, acid/base balance, energy substrate
excess protein intake nitrogen is urinated out carbon is stored as glycogen/fat
problems w/ excess protein intake loss of calcium and zinc; dehydration
Created by: melaniebeale