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Exam 2 Health

Health exam 2

QuestionAnswer
USDA revises every how many years? 5 years
Portion size has ____________ over the years increased
Fruit portions 2 cups per day (avoid fruit juice)
Vegetable portions 2 1/2 cups per day
Bread portions 6 servings
USDA revises every how many years? 5 years
Portion size has ____________ over the years increased
Fruit portions 2 cups per day (avoid fruit juice)
Fruit portions 2 cups per day (avoid fruit juice)
Vegetable portions 2 1/2 cups per day
Pesco-vegetarian eats fish
Bread portions 6 servings
Vegan-vegetarian nothing animal or produced from an animal
Wheat flour or whole wheat flour...which is better? Whole wheat flour
Wheat flour or whole wheat flour...which is better? Whole wheat flour
Guidelines Average healthy adult, No chronic health conditions, no special dietary needs
Exercise 5 days a week 60 minutes each time
Exercise 5 days a week 60 minutes each time
Metabolism.... read about that
Metabolism.... read about that
Pesco-vegetarian eats fish
Pesco-vegetarian eats fish
Vegan-vegetarian nothing animal or produced from an animal
Carbohydrates (CHO) -Major energy source -45-65% of calories **4 calories per gram**
Vegan-vegetarian nothing animal or produced from an animal
Guidelines Average healthy adult, No chronic health conditions, no special dietary needs
Guidelines Average healthy adult, No chronic health conditions, no special dietary needs
Nutrients -elements in food -required for energy, growth, repair, and regulation of body process
Nutrients -elements in food -required for energy, growth, repair, and regulation of body process
Macronutrients -Provide calories: energy or stored as fatty tissue -carbohydrates, fats, proteins
Macronutrients -Provide calories: energy or stored as fatty tissue -carbohydrates, fats, proteins
Carbohydrates (CHO) -Major energy source -45-65% of calories **4 calories per gram**
Categories of CHO -Simple CHO= digested more quickly -Complex CHO=more fiber, vitamins, minerals
Fats -9 calories/gram -concentrated form of energy -satiety= cause a feeling o fullness -palatability= pleasing taste -20-35% OF calories
Saturated Fats (carefully limit) -usually solid at room temperature -Animal sources -Tropical oils (palm, palm kernel, coconut
Fats -9 calories/gram -concentrated form of energy -satiety= cause a feeling o fullness -palatability= pleasing taste -20-35% OF calories
Trans-Fatty Acids (avoid) -Hydrogenated oil -Increase risk of CHD
Unsaturated Fats -Usually liquid at room temperature -Monounsaturated Fats -olive, peanut -Polyunsaturated Fats -safflower, soybean, corn
Proteins -Usually liquid
Micronutrients -No Calories -Vitamins, minerals, water
Vitamins -organic compounds required in small amounts -Energy production, use of minerals, growth of healthy tissue -Fat soluble= A,D,E,K -Water Soluble= B-complex, C
Minerals -5% of body composition -21 minerals recognized for good health -Muscle and heart function, blod clotting, protein synthesis, red blood cell information -Iron and Calcium
Water -most essential nutrient -Half of our body weight -Medium for nutrient and waste transport, controls body temperature, most biochemical reactions -6-10 glassed a day
Fiber -Not a nutrient, but important component of sound nutrition -Plant material, not digested -Grains, fruit, vegetables -Adults= 25-38 grams/day (most 11 grams/day)
Recommended Diet -55-60%= carbohydrates (most complex) -30% or less= Fat -15-20%= Protein
2010 Dietary Guidelines Balancing Calories -Enjoy your food, but eat less -Avoid oversized portions
2010 Dietary Guidelines Foods to Increase -Half of your plate = fruits and vegetables -Half your grains = whole grains -Drink fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk
2010 Dietary Guidelines Foods to Reduce -Reduce salt intake -Drink water, not sugary drinks
Meaning and use of food Physiological -energy, hungry -need nutrients -respond to hunger
Meaning and use of food Social -Gifts -Expression of hospitality -Family gatherings, holidays, festival occasions
Meaning and use of food Emotional -express love, affection, caring, punishment/reward, comfort or soothe, "Food is my best friend" Deal with feelings - starve, stuff, swallow
Meaning and use of food Religious Dietary restrictions (consistent or during certain times), Part of a ceremony
Meaning and use of food Cultural Types of food/eating patters vary globally/regionally "Family Recipes"
Meaning and use of food Political state dinners, fund raisers, hunger strike, food rations, food embargo, vegetarian diets
Body Image -Subjective perception of how our body appears - to self and others -Striving to reach "ideal" = disordered eating, bigorexia -May inflience dietary patterns, activity level
Overweight and obesity -1-19% above healthy weight = overweight -obesity = 20% or more above normal weight -Morbid obesity = 50-100% above our normal weight, more than 100 pounds overweight, weight interferes w/normal functioning
by the #'s -66% of adults are overweight or obese -34.3% of adults are obese -# of overweight children and adolescents has tripled in past 20 years
Body Fat % -Normal Range: Males = 10-15%....Females = 20-25% -Obese = Males: 20%....Females: 30%
Healthy Weight Gain -Underweight+ BMI<18.5 or 10-20% below normal weight -Undernourished= 20% or more below normal weight -Screen = Medical conditions, poverty, eating disorder -Increase intake of calorie-dense foods and strength training
Weight Management Issues -Physiological and Psychological needs -Personal preferences -Activity level -Body Chemistry -Age -Health status -Present weight
What should you weigh? Height/Weight tables-scales BMI Desirable weight= consider gender, age, and frame size Healthy Body weight = within a weight range (waste to hip ratio)
Body Fat Measurement BOD POD Skin fold measurement Hydrostatic weighing Appearance
Energy Needs of the Body Activity requirements (20-40%) Basal metabolism (50-70%) Thermic effect of food (10%)
Causes of Obesity Calorie imbalance Genetic factors Physiological and Hormonal factors Metabolic factors Family, social, and cultural factors Environmental factors Psychological factors
Lifetime Healthy Weight Management -Balanced Diet -Moderately Intense Physical Activity - 150 minutes a week= weight maintances and 300 minutes weekly = weight loss -Adequate sleep -Lifestyle support and problem solving
Dietary Approaches Temporary caloric restriction Controlled fasting Formal/commercial weight reduction programs
Physical Weight loss drugs Surgery
"Dieting" Societal influences Dieting causes overcasting = starve/binge cycle Homeostasis Results -go off diet, gain weight right back
Anorexia-Diagnostic Criteia
Weight Management Issues -Physiological and Psychological needs -Personal preferences -Activity level -Body Chemistry -Age -Health status -Present weight
What should you weigh? Height/Weight tables-scales BMI Desirable weight= consider gender, age, and frame size Healthy Body weight = within a weight range (waste to hip ratio)
Body Fat Measurement BOD POD Skin fold measurement Hydrostatic weighing Appearance
Energy Needs of the Body Activity requirements (20-40%) Basal metabolism (50-70%) Thermic effect of food (10%)
Causes of Obesity Calorie imbalance Genetic factors Physiological and Hormonal factors Metabolic factors Family, social, and cultural factors Environmental factors Psychological factors
Lifetime Healthy Weight Management -Balanced Diet -Moderately Intense Physical Activity - 150 minutes a week= weight maintances and 300 minutes weekly = weight loss -Adequate sleep -Lifestyle support and problem solving
Dietary Approaches Temporary caloric restriction Controlled fasting Formal/commercial weight reduction programs
Physical Weight loss drugs Surgery
"Dieting" Societal influences Dieting causes overcasting = starve/binge cycle Homeostasis Results -go off diet, gain weight right back
Anorexia-Diagnostic Criteia 15% or more below healthy weight Fear of weight gain Altered body image 3 or more missed menstrual periods/no onset of menstruation
Bulimia-Diagnostic Criteria Binge eating 2 or more times a week for 3 months Lack of control over binging Purging Concern about body image
Cultural Factors Abundant foods Unrealistic standards Contradictory messages Thin = success
2 reasonable goals Accept and like our body Eat in a healthy manner
Impact of CVD-U.S. Directly related to 33.6% of deaths Cause 1 in 3 deaths
Good News! Between 1997 and 2007, death rates from CVD declined 27.8% Due to = change lifestyles, and medical advances in diagnosis and treatments
Cardiovascular -Cardio= heart -Vascular= blood vessels
Arteries Vessels that carry blood AWAY from the heart
Veins Vessels that carry blood TOWARDS the heart
Capillaries smallest extensions of the vascular system
The heart 4-chambered pump Atria= upper chambers Ventricles=Lower chambers Septum=divides right and left side of heart
Septum divides right and left side of heart
Ventricles Lower chambers
Atria Upper chambers
Heart Attack AKA ***MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION*** deceased coronary arteries
Blood Average adult= 5 quarts of blood donates only 1 pint
**Functions of Blood** -Transportation -Regulation of water content -Maintain appropriate pH balance of body fluids -Regulation of body temperature -Prevention of blood loss -Protection against toxins and microorganisms
Cardiovascular Risk Factors Increased likelihood Attributer a person has or will be exposed too
Risk factors you can not change Could encourage you to make a serious commitment to the risk factors you can chance
Increasing Age Heart disease develops gradually Rare in 20s and 30s 81% of heart attacks = age 65+
Male Gender Higher risk than females before 55 Hormone estrogen = protection After menopause = similar rates
Heredity Genetic Predisposition As a group, African Americans are at increased risk for high blood pressure
Risk Factors You Can Change Cigarette Smoking and Second Smoke Smokers = 2-4x risk of heart attack risk 2nd hand smoke = 30% risk of heart attack death Former smokers (Pack or less a day)= within 3 years, same years as a nonsmoker
Risk Factors You Can Change Physical Activity Regular aerobic exercise = beneficial 30 minutes/day/5 days a week = decreased risk heart attack
Risk Factors You Can Change Blood Cholesterol Total= desirable <200, borderline 200-239, high >240 LDL= Optimal <100 HDL= desirable>60
Risk Factors You Can Change High Blood Pressure AKA ****Hypertension and "Silent Killer"**** Normal= 120/80 Hypertension= 140/90 or higher Systolic= highest pressure Diastolic= lowest pressure
Risk Factors You Can Change Diabetes Mellitus Increased risk of heard and blood vessel disease 65% of diabetes die of heart disease Abnormal cholesterol and blood fat
Risk Factors You Can Change Obesity and Overweight Abnormal fat= strain of heart Influences bood pressure and blood cholesterol levels Obesity= trigger diabetes in predisposed people
Metabolic Syndrome 3 or more.... -Abdominal obesity -Abdominal blood lipids -Elevate blood pressure -Elevated fasting glucose -2xs as likely to develop heart disease
Contributing Risk Factors Individual response to stress Sex hormones Oral contraceptives Alcohol
Forms of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary Heart Disease Damage to vessels that supply blood to the heart Atherosclerosis = Plaque buildup on inner walls of arteries Angiha pectoris= coronary arteries become....
Forms of Cardiovascular Disease ***Hypertension*** ***High Blood Pressure***
Forms of Cardiovascular Disease Stroke Cerebrovascular accidents - results from blood vessel damage to the brain
Forms of Cardiovascular Disease Congenital Heart Disease Defect present at birth
Forms of Cardiovascular Disease Rheumatic Heart Disease Final stage in a serious of complications started by strep throat
Forms of Cardiovascular Disease Congestive Heart Failure Heart lacks strength to circulate blood normally throughout the body
Exercise: -subcategory of physical activity -planned structured repetitive purposive -objective = improve or maintain physical fitness
exercise trends: -weekends vs. weekdays -school year vs. out of school -activities you enjoy, do not enjoy, or want to try
results of physical fitness -body systems function at optimal efficiency -energy to meet demands of life without fatigue -capacity to handle unforeseen emergencies
health-related physical fitness 4 components: -cardiorespiratory endurance -muscular fitness (strength and endurance) -flexibility -body composition
surgeon general’s report (1996) -30 minutes = moderate activity per day
dietary guidelines for Americans (2010) -adults 18-64 -2 hours and 30 minutes, per week, moderate workout level -1 hour and 15 minutes, per week, vigorous workout level -5 or more hours, per week = best workout -spread out over three days -strengthening training = two days a week
ACSM: American College of Sport Medicine ACSM: American College of Sport Medicine
Principles of Training: -Overload: work harder than usual -Specify: targeted for improvement -Reversibility on Regression: “use it or lose it”
Cardiorespiratory Endurance: MOST IMPORTANT -foundation for whole-body fitness -improvement of heart, lung, and blood vessel function -helps body work longer and at greater levels of intensity -*aerobic: with oxygen
Cardiorespiratory Endurance: MOST IMPORTANT Continued -anaerobic: without oxygen -intensity = 64-91% of max heart rate (MHR) -Duration 20-90 minutes -mode = vigorous rhythmic and continuous
Maximum Heart Rate = 220 – your age Maximum Heart Rate = 220 – your age
Perceived Exertion: an experienced ‘excersior’ can tell wen they’re in their target heart rate zone Perceived Exertion: an experienced ‘excersior’ can tell wen they’re in their target heart rate zone
3 parts to a workout warm-up workout cool-down
Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance -reduction in resting heart rates -improved heart efficiency -increased rest for the hart between beats -increased oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood
Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance Continued -improved exercise performance on timed tests -improved blood lipid profile -improved body fat percentage -increased lean body mass -firmer muscles
Muscular Fitness -muscular strength (overload principle) = more weight -muscular endurance = more reps -2-4 sets of 8-10 reps using major muscle groups (2-3 days per week)
Benefits of Strength Training -weight control/weight gain/appearance -energy -athletic performance -injury prevention -bone strength -flexibility -psychological benefits
Benefits of Flexibility -decrease risk of injury -counteracts age-related declines -decreases aces and pains -increases the ability to move freely
Guidelines for flexibility -warm up before stretching -use stretching as a preparation for activity
Created by: ammunn