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Med Term-Rice Chap 6

Medical Terminology Ivy Tech Jane Rice Chapter 6 Skeletal System

Amount of bones in skeletal system 206 bones
axial skeleton consists of 80 bones (skull, spine, ribs, and sternum)
appendicular skeleton consists of 126 bones (shoulder girdle, arms and hands, pelvis girdle, legs and feet)
bones primary organs composed of 50% water and 50% solid matter
Flat Ribs, scapula, parts of the pelvice girdle, bones of the skull
Long Tibia (shin bone) femur (thigh bone), humerus, radius)
Short carpals, tarsals
Irregular Vertebrae, ossicles of the ear
Sesamoid Patella (kneecap)
Sutural or Wormian Between the flat bones of the skull
Hematopoiesis formation of blood cells
Epiphysis ends of developing bone
Diaphysis shaft of long bone
Periosteum membrane that forms the covering of bones except at their articular surfaces
compact bone dense, hard layer of bone tissue
Medullary canal a narrow space or cavity throughout the length of the diaphysis
Endosteum tought, connective tissue membrane lining the medullary canal and containing the bone marrow
Cancellous or spongy bone reticular tissue that make up most of the volume of bone
Condyle rounded projection that enters into the formation of a joint, articulation
crest ridge on a bone
Fissure slitlike opening between two bones
Foramen opening in the bone for blood vessels, ligaments, and nerves
Fossa Shallow depression in or on a bone
Head rounded end of a bone
meatus tube like passage or canal
process enlargement or protrusion of a bone
Sinus Air cavity within certain bones
Spine pointed, sharp, slender process
Sulcus Groove, furrow, depression, or fissure
Trochanter Either of the two bony projections below the neck of the femur
tubercle small, rounded process
tuberosity large, rounded process
joint an articulation, a place where two or more bones connect
Synarthrosis does not permit movement, bones are in close contact with each other ( ex: cranial suture)
Amphiarthrosis permits very slight movement (ex: vertebra)
Diarthrosis allows free movement in a variety of directions (ex: knee, hip, elbow, wrist and foot)
abduction moving body part away from the middle
Adduction moving body part toward the middle
circumduction moving body part in a circular motion
dorsiflexion bending a body part backward
eversion turning outward
extension straightening a flexed limb
flexion bending a limb
inversion turning inward
pronation lying prone (face downward); also turning the palm downward
protraction moving a body part forward
retraction moving a body part backward
rotation moving a body part around a central axis
supination lying supine (face upward); also turning the palm upward
vertebral column composed of a series of separate bones (vertebrae)
cervical vertebrae curve first 7 vertebrae
thoracic vertebrae curve second; set of 12 vertabrae
lumbar vertebrae curve third; set of 5 vertabrae
sacral vertebrae curve consists of the sacrum and coccyx (tailbone)
pelvis lower portion of the trunk of the body
male pelvis (android) shaped like a funnel, stronger and heavier than female pelvis
female pelvis (gynecoid) shaped like a basin, constructed to accommodate the fetus during pregnancy and childbirth
osteoblasts bone forming cells
endochondral ossification process in which bones are formed
epiphyseal plate center for longitudinal bone growth in children
osteoporosis loss of bone mass, often seen in older women and men
acetabul acetabulum, hip socket
-um structure, tissue
a- without
chondr/o cartilage
-plasia formation
acr/o extremity
arthr joine
-itis inflammation
acr extremity
-omion shoulder
ankyl stiffening, crooked
-osis condition (usually abnormal)
arth joint
-algia pain
arthr joint
-itis inflammation
arthr/o joint
-centesis surgical puncture
arthr/o joint
-plasty surgical repair
arthr/o joint
-scope instrument for examining
bone marrow transplant surgical process of transferring bone marrow from one person to another
bursa padlike sac between muscles, tendons and bones
burs a pouch
-itis inflammation
bursitis imflammation of the bursa
calcan/e heel bone
-al pertaining to
calcaneal pertaining to the heel bone
calcium mineral that is essential for bone strength
carp wrist
-al pertaining to
carpal pertaining to the wrist
carpal tunnel syndrome condition caused by compression of the median nerve by the carpal ligament
cartil gristle
-age related to
carilage specialized type of firbous connnective tissue found at ends of bone
cast type of material; used to immobilize a fractured bone, dislocation, or a sprain
chondro cartilage
-al pertaining to
chondral pertaining to cartilage
chondr/o cartilage
cost rib
-al pertaining to
chondrocostal pertaining to rib cartilage
clavicul clavicle, collor bone
-ar pertaining to
clavicular pertaining to clavicle (collar bone)
coccyg/e coccyx, tailbone
-al pertaining to
coccygeal pertaining to the coccyx (tailbone)
coll/a glue
-gen formation; produce
collagen fibrous insoluble protein found in the connective tissue, skin, ligaments and cartilage
coccyg/o coccyx, tailbone
-dynia pain
connect to bind together
-ive nature of
cost rib
-al pertaining to
costal pertaining to the rib
cost/o rib
stern sternum
-al pertaining to
costosternal pertaining to a rib and the sternum
crani/(o) skull
-ectomy surgical excision
craniectomy surgical excision of a portion of the skull
crani/o skull
-tomy incision
craniotomy incision into the skull
dactyl/o finger or toe
-gram makr, record
dis- apart
locat to place
-ion process
dislocation displacement of a bone from a joint
femor femur
-al pertaining to
fibul fibula
fixat fastened
-ion process
flatfoot abnormal flatness of the sole and arch of the foot
genu valgum knock knee
genu varum bowleg
gout herediatary metabolic disease
hallux big or great toe
hammertoe acquired flexion deformity of the interphalgeal join
humer humerus
-al pertaining to
hydr- water
arthr joint
-osis condition (usually abnormal)
ili ilium
-ac pertaining to
ili/o ilium
sacr sacrum
inter between
cost rib
isch/i ischium, hip
-algia pain
kyph a hump
-osis condition (usually abnormal)
kyphosis Humpback
lamin lamina (thin plate)
-ectomy surgical excision
lord bending, curve, swayback
lumb loin, lower back
lumb/o loin, lower back
mandibul lower jawbone
-ar pertaining to
maxill jawbone
-ary pertaining to
mandibular pertaining to lower jawbone
maxillary pertaining to the upper jawbone
menisc crescent
-us structure
meta- beyone
carp wrist
myel bone marrow
-poiesis formation
olecran elbow
orthopedics branch of medicine conerned with diseases and disorders
orthopedist physician who specializes in orthropedics
oste/o bone
arthr joint
carcin cancer
-malacia softening
oste/o bone
myel bone marrow
-penia deficiency
oste/o bone
por a passage
-osis condition
sarc flesh
-tome instrument to cut
patell kneecap
ped foot
peri- around
oste/o bone
-edema swelling
phalang/e phalanges (finger/toe bones)
phos light
phor carrying
-us pertaining to
poly- many, much
rach/i spine
-graph instrument for recording
rad/i radius
radi/o x-ray
re- back
duct to lead
rheumat discharge
-oid resemble
rickets deficiency condition in children primarly; caused by lack of vitamin D
scapul shoulder blade
scoli curvature
spin spine
splint appliance used for fixation, support, and rest of an injured body part
sondyl vertebra
sprain twisting a joint that causes pain and disability
spur sharp or pointed projection, as on a bone
stern sternum, breastbone
stern/o sternum
sub- under, beneath
clavicul clavicle, collar bone
sym- together
-physis growth
tendon tendon
tibi tibia
tract to draw
uln ulna, elbow
uln/o ulna, elbow
carp wrist
vertebr vertebra
vertebr/o vertebra
stern sternum
xiph sword
scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
lordosis abnormal anterior curvature of the lumbar spine (swayback)
kyphosis humpback
arthritis disease that involves the inflammation of one or more joins
osteoarthritis most common type of arthritis in US. often resuslts from years of "wear and tear"
fractures classified according the their external appearance, site of fracture and nature of the crack or break
closed or simple fracture completely internal; does not involve break of skin
open or compound fracture projects through the skin and possibility of infection or hemmorrhage
comminuted fracture shatter the affected part into a multitue of bony fragments
transverse fracture break the shaft of the bone across its longitudinal axis
greenstick fracture usually occur in children whose longs bone have not fully ossified; only one side of the shaft is broken, other side is bent
spiral fracture produced by twisting stresses are spread along the bone
colles' fracture often result of reaching out to cushion fall; break in the distal portion of the radius
pott's fracture occurs at the ankle and affects both bones of lower leg (fibula and tibita_
compression fracture occur in vertebrae sujected to extreme stress, when one falls and lands on his or her bottom
epiphyseal fracture occur where the matrix is undergoing calcification and chondrocytes (cartilage cells) are dying
Created by: aharger1