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Chap. 2 Terms

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.
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Question
Answer
VENTRAL   THE BELLY OR UNDERSIDE OF A BODY OR BODY PART  
DORSAL   REFERS TO THE BACK (A DORSAL FIN IS ON THE BACK)  
CRANIAL   TOWARDS THE HEAD  
CAUDAL   TOWARDS THE TAIL  
ANTERIOR   MEANS FRONT OF THE BODY  
POSTERIOR   MEANS REAR OF THE BODY  
ROSTRAL   TOWARDS THE NOSE  
CEPHALIC   PERTAINING TO THE HEAD  
MEDIAL   TOWARDS THE MIDLINE  
LATERAL   AWAY FROM THE MIDLINE  
SUPERIOR   UPPERMOST, ABOVE  
INFERIOR   LOWERMOST, BELOW  
PROXIMAL   NEAREST THE MIDLINE OR NEAREST THE BEGINNING OF THE STRUCTURE  
DISTAL   FARTHEST FROM THE MIDLINE OR FARTHEST FROM THE BEGINNING OF A STRUCTURE  
SUPERFICIAL   NEAR THE SURFACE (ALSO CALLED EXTERNAL)  
DEEP   BENEATH THE SURFACE  
PALMAR   THE CAUDAL SURFACE OF THE FRONT PAW (THE PALM)  
PLANTAR   THE CAUDAL SURFACE OF THE BACK PAW (THE SOLE)  
MIDSAGITTAL PLANE (ALSO CALLED MEDIAN PLANE AND MIDLINE)   THE PLANE THAT DIVIDES THE BODY INTO EQUAL R&L HALVES  
SAGITTAL PLANE   THE PLANE THAT DIVIDES THE BODY INTO UNEQUAL R&L PARTS  
DORSAL PLANE   DIVIDES THE BODY INTO DORSAL(BACK) AND VENTRAL(FRONT) PLANES  
TRANSVERSE PLANE   DIVIDES THE BODY INTO CRANIAL AND CAUDAL PARTS  
-LOGY   SUFFIX MEANING THE STUDY OF  
ANATOMY   STUDY OF BODY STRUCTURE  
PHYSIOLOGY   STUDY OF BODY FUNCTION  
PATHOLOGY   STUDY OF ABNORMAL CONDITIONS (DISEASE)  
ETIOLOGY   THE STUDY OF THE CAUSES OF DISEASE  
BODY CAVITY   A HOLE OR HOLLOW SPACE IN THE BODY THAT CONTAINS ORGANS  
CRANIAL CAVITY   CONTAINS THE BRAIN  
SPINAL CAVITY   CONTAINS THE SPINAL CORD WITHIN THE SPINAL COLUMN  
THORACIC CAVITY   CONTAINS HEART,LUNGS, RIBS  
ABDOMINAL CAVITY (ALSO CALLED PERITONEAL CAVITY)   CONTAINS ORGANS FOR DIGESTION  
PELVIC CAVITY   CONTAINS REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS & SOME EXCRETORY ORGANS  
RECUMBANT   MEDICAL TERM FOR LYING DOWN  
DORSAL RECUMBANCY (also called supine)   LYING ON THE BACK  
VENTRAL RECUMBANCY (also called sternal or prone position)   LYING ON THE BELLY (STERNAL RECUMBANCY)  
what is the dental arcade?   how the teeth are arranged in the mouth  
aspect of the tooth that faces the tongue   lingual surface  
what is the maxilla   upper jaw  
what is the mandible   lower jaw  
which aspect of the toothfaces the cheek?   buccal surface  
what are the aspects of the teeth that meet when you chew   occlusal surface  
left lateral recumbancy   animal is lying down on its left side  
right lateral recumbancy   animal is lying down on its right side  
what is adduction   movement toward the midline  
what is abduction   movement away from the midline  
what is flexion   reducing of the angle between 2 bones  
what is extension   straightening of a joint or an increase in the angle between 2 bones  
combining form for cell   cyt/o  
cytology   the study of cells  
-PLASM   suffix for formative material of cells  
genetic   pertains to genes  
genetic disorder   any inherited disease or condition caused by defective genes  
congenital   something that is present at birth  
congenital defect   something faulty that is present at birth  
anomaly   deviation from normal  
better word to use than defect is?   anomaly  
study of tissue is called   histology  
adip/o   combining form for fat  
anaplasia   a change in the structure of cells and their orienttion to each other  
aplasia   lack of development of an organ or a tissue or a cell  
dysplasia   abnormal growth or development of an organ/tissue/cell  
hyperplasia   abnormal increase in the number of normal cells  
hypoplasia   incomplete or less than normal development of an organ/tissue/cell  
neoplasia   any abnormal new growth of tissue in which multiplication of cells is uncontrolled, more rapid than normal, and progressive  
benign tumor   not recurring  
malignant tumor   tending to spread & be life threatening  
-oma   suffix meaning tumor or neoplasm  
atrophy   decrease in size or complete wasting of an organ/tissue or cell  
dystrophy   defective growth in the size of an organ/tissue/cell  
hypertrophy   increase in the size of an organ/tissue/cell  
aden/o   combining form for gland  
exocrine glands   secrete their chemicals into ducts that lead to of the body or to other organs  
endocrine glands   secrete their chemical substances directly into the bloodstream  
oste/o oss/e oss/i   combining form for bones  
arthr/o   combining form for joints  
chondr/o   combining form for cartilage  
my/o   combining form for muscles  
fasc/i or fasci/o   combining form for fascia  
ten/o or tend/o or tendin/o   combining form for tendons  
cardi/o   combining form for heart  
arteri/o   combining form for arteries  
ven/o or phleb/o   combining form for veins  
hem/o or hemat/o   combining form for blood  
lymph/o   combining form for lymph vessels, lymph fluid and lymph nodes  
tonsill/o   combining form for tonsils  
splen/o   combining form for spleen  
thym/o   combining form for thymus  
nas/o or rhin/o   combining form for nose  
pharyng/o   combining form for pharynx  
trache/o   combining form for trachea  
laryng/o   combining form for larynx  
pneum/o or pneumon/o   combining form for lungs  
or/o or stomat/o   combining form for mouth  
esophag/o   combining form for esophagus  
gastr/o   combining form for stomach  
enter/o   combining form for small intestines  
col/o or colon/o   combining form for large intestines  
hepat/o   combining form for liver  
pancreat/o   combining form for pancreas  
ren/o or nephr/o   combining form for kidneys  
ureter/o   combining form for ureters  
cyst/o   combining form for bladder  
urethro/o   combining form for urethra  
neur/o or neur/i   combining form for nerves  
myel/o   combining form for spinal cord  
ophthalm/o or ocul/o   combining form for eyes  
optic/o   combining form for sight  
ot/o or aur/i or aur/o or audit/o or aud/i   combining form for ears  
acoustic/o   combining form for sound  
dermat/o or dermo/o or cutane/o   combining form for skin  
adren/o   combining form foradrenals  
gonad/o   combining form for gonads  
pineal/o   combining form for pineal  
pituit/o   combining form for pituitary  
thyroid/o or thyr/o   combining form for thyroid  
orch/o or orchi/o or orchid/o or testicul/o   combining form for testicles  
ovari/o or oophor/o   combining form for ovaries  
hyster/o or metr/o or metr/i or metri/o or uter/o   combining form for uterus  
prefixes for 1   uni- or mono-  
prefixes for 2   duo- , bi- , dyo-  
prefix for 3   tri-  
prefixes for 4   quadri- , quadro- , tetra-  
prefixes for 5   quint- , pent- , penta-  
prefixes for 6   sex- , hex- , hexa-  
prefixes for 7   sept- , septi- , hept- , hepta-  
prefixes for 8   octo- , oct- , octa-  
prefixes for 9   novem- , ennea-  
prefixes for 10   deca- , decem- , dek- , deka-  


   


 
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