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Hormones and endocrine glands

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Define hormone   A chemical messenger that arose the body's tissues and cells by stimulating responses in RECEPTIVE tissues/organs and sense changes in their metabolic activity  
Target cells/hormone receptors   Cells will not respond to a hormone unless it contains the appropriate receptor  
What glands are ductless gland   Endocrine  
What glands do have ducts   Exocrine  
How do Endocrine glands secrete   Secrete hormones into bloodstream. Has intracellular effects  
How do exocrine glands secrete   Secretes product out through ducts into body cavities on surface (mucus, mammary, sweat, oil, and digestive.) Extracellular effects  
Name 3 functions of hormones   1. Help maintain homeostasis 2. Growth and development 3. Reproduction  
Define diabetes mellitus   Impaired blood glucose homeostasis  
What are normal blood glucose levels   70-100mg/dl after fasting and 140< after meal/glucose  
What are impaired glucose (pre diabetic) blood levels   100-126 after fasting or 140-200 after meal/glucose  
What are diabetic blood glucose levels   126+ after fasting or 200+ after meal/glucose  
What makes the hormones for the posterior pituitary gland and what hormones   The Hypothalamus. Oxytocin and Antidieuretic (ADH)  
Where is the pituitary gland housed   The sella turcica of sphenoid bone  
Anterior pituitary   Receives "releasing" or "inhibiting" control hormones from hypothalamus by blood system  
Posterior pituitary hormone travel   Neurons from hypothalamus descend directly into the lobe. Hormones from hypothalamus secreted directly by axon terminals in the pituitary  
Another name for anterior pituitary gland   Adenohypophysis  
Another name for posterior pituitary gland   Neurohypophysis  
What hormones are produced from the anterior pituitary gland, specifically the pars distalis   1. Adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) 2. Thyroid Stimulating (TSH) 3. Growth hormone (GH) 4. Prolactin (PLH) 5. Follicle Stimulating (FSH) 6. Luteinizing (LH)  
What hormone is produced in the pars intermedia   Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH)  
Adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) function and location   Stimulates activity of the cortex of the adrenal gland which then produces the "stress hormone", cortisol (anterior pituitary)  
Thyroid stimulating Hormone (TSH) function and location   Stimulates production and release of thyroid hormone (anterior pituitary)  
Growth hormone (GH) function and location   Stimulates growth of bone, cartilage, and muscle, etc. Timing and amount released determines body size (anterior pituitary)  
Prolactin Hormone (PRL) function and locaton   Stimulates breast development. Promotes and maintains lactation after childbirth (anterior pituitary)  
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) function and location   Causes formation of ovarian follicles and stimulates them to produce estrogen. Stimulates sperm development in men (anterior pituitary)  
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) function and location   Initiates ovulation, maintains corpus luteum which produces progesterone. Stimulates testosterone secretion in males (anterior pituitary)  
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)   Causes release of melanin pigment. Very active in fetal life, but very small or absent in adulthood (pars intermedia)  
What hormones does the posterior pituitary produce   Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) and Oxytocin  
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) function and location   Reduces urine output and sweating, increases water reabsorption in the kidneys, resulting in increase in BP (posterior pituitary)  
Oxytocin function and location   Causes uterine contractions in labor, causes milk let down in lactating mothers, feelings of affection (love hormone) (posterior pituitary)  
What are the thyroid hormones called   Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine (T3 & T4)  
What secretes the thyroid hormones   Follicular cells that surround the thyroid follicles  
What are the thyroid follicles filled with   Collide  
What do the parafollicular (C cells) in the thyroid secrete   Calcitonin ("tones your bones")  
Calcitonin   Decreases blood calcium levels, promotes Ca2 deposition and bone formation  
What is the function of the thyroid   Maintain body's metabolism  
What do the cheif cells secrete   Parathyroid hormone (PTH)  
Name functions of the parathyroid gland/hormones   Raises blood calcium levels. Increase activity of osteoclasts  
What and where are oxyphil cells   Appear at puberty, no known function. Blurry/rosy spots on parathyroid  
What are the 2 general layers of the adrenal gland   Cortex and medulla  
What are the 4 layers from outside to inside of the adrenal gland   1. Fibrous capsule 2. Zona glomeruosa 3. Zona Fasciculata 4. Zona reticularis  
Where are the adrenal glands   On top of kidneys  
What are the 3 hormones produced by the adrenal glands and from which zone are they produced   1. Aldosterone from zona glomeruosa 2. Cortisol from zona fasiculata 3. Androgens from zona reticularis  
What does the medulla secrete   Catecholamines: Epinephrine and Norepinephrine  
Function of aldosterone   Increases blood volume by causing kidneys to retain sodium in exchange for potassium. Increased blood volume increases BP  
Function of cortisol   Released in response from stress. Increases formation from protein and fat breakdown. Decreases inflammation  
Function of androgens   Male sex hormones produced in small quantities and then converted into estrogens upon entering blood  
Epinephrine and norepinephrine function   Fight or flight response. Increase heart rate, increase skeletal muscle blood flow, decrease skin blood flow  
What is the endocrine portion of the pancreas   Small Islets of langerhans (blood glucose regulation)  
What is the exocrine portion of the pancreas   Large portion of the pancreas, Acini (digestion)  
What is from the beta cells   Insulin  
What is from the alpha cells   Glucagon  
Insulin function   Secreted after high carb meals. Stimulates glucose and amino acid uptake. Antagonizes glucagon  
Glucagon function   Secreted in very low carb and high protein diet or fasting. Stimulates glycogenolysis  
Somatostatin function   Secreted with in high blood glucose and amino acids after a meal. Inhibit both insulin and glucagon and may increase efficiency in digestion  
What are the 3 "poly's" in diabetes mellitus   Polyuria (increase urine production), Polydipsia (increase thirst), Polyphagia (increase eating)  
Type 1 diabetes   Insulin dependent. Autoimmune disorder. Immune system destroys beta cells in pancreas (caused by lack of insulin)  
Type 2 diabetes   Insulin resistance. Caused by an insensitivity of cells to insulin  
Estrogen function and production   Ovulation, secondary sex characteristic, regulation of menstrual cycle, produced by granulosa cells and secondarily by placenta during pregnancy  
What hormone stimulates ovarian production of estrogens   FSH  
Progesterone   Promotes growth and development of endometrial lining of uterus. With fertilization, it is secreted by corpus luteum and placenta once functional  
Testosterone   Stimulate development of male sex organs, secondary sexual characteristics, and sperm production.  
Interstitial (leydig) cells function and location   Produces testosterone in the presence of LH. Found adjacent to seminiferous tubules (sight of sperm production)  
Pineal gland   Produces serotonin by day and converts it to melatonin in the dark  
What glycoprotein hormone does the kidney produce   Erythropoietin (EPO)  
Erythropoietin (EPO) function   Sensitive to low oxygen levels in blood coming into kidney. Bleeding or moving to high altitudes can produce this secretion  
What other hormone does the kidney produce and where does the hormone derive from   Calcitriol. Derives from calciferol  
Calcitriol (Vit D3)   Promote absorption of Ca2+ and phosphate in gut. Inhibits PTH secertion  
How does calciferol convert to calcitriol   Calciferol is synthesized in skin when exposed to UV, then converted to calcidiol in the liver, and then carried to the kidneys and converted into calcitrol and produced in the presence of PTH  
What is the corpus luteum   Is developed from an ovarian follicle and what is left after ovulation and produces progesterone.  
Hyposecretion   Inadequate hormone release. Tumor or lesion destroys glands. Head trauma affects pituitary gland’s ability to secrete ADH  
Diabetes insipidus   Chronic polyuria (form of hyposecretion)  
Hypersecretion   Excessive hormone release. Tumors or autoimmune disorders.  
Toxic goiter (graves disease)   Antibodies mimic effect of TSH on the thyroid (form of hypersecretion)  
Acromegaly   Pituitary disorder:Hypersecretion of growth hormones. Thickening of the bones and soft tissues. Problems in childhood or adolescence. Gigantism = oversecretion. Dwarfism = hyposecretion  
Thyroid gland disorder   Hyperthyroidism (weight loss, tremors.) Endemic goiter (enlarged thyroid gland.) Graves disease  
Congenital hypothyroidism   Decrease thyroid hormone. Infant suffers bone development, thickened facial features, low temp, lethargy, dwarfism, brain damage  
Myxedema Adult hypothyroidism   Decrease TH. Low metabolic rate, sluggish, sleepy, weight gain, high BP, tissue swelling  
Hypoparathyroid   PT disorder. Surgical excision during thyroid surgery. Fatal tetany in 3-5 days  
Hyperparathyroid   Excess PTH secretion. Tumor in gland. Causes soft and fragile bones. Increase blood Ca+2. Kidney stones (renal calculi)  
Cushion syndrome   Disorder of adrenal gland. Excess cortical secretion. Hyperglycemia, hypertension, edema. Muscle and bone loss. Buffalo hump & moon face  
Adrenogenital syndrome   Disorder or adrenal glands. Adrenal androgen hyper secretion accompanies Cushing. Enlargement of sexual organs in children. Masculine effects in women.  
Addison's disease   Hyposecretion of glucocorticoids. Hypoglycemia, muscle weakness, low BP, dehydration due to decreased Na+ in blood, potential cardiac arrest.  
Hyperinsulinism   From excess insulin injection, or pancreatic islet tumor. Causes hypoglycemia, weakness, and hunger. Triggers secretion of epinephrine, GH, and glucagon. (Side effects: anxiety, sweating,)  
Insulin shock   Uncorrected hyperinsulinism with disorientation, convulsions, or unconsciousness  
Thymus   Secretes hormones that regulate development and later activation of T-lymphocytes (superior to heart)  
Lipid soluble hormones and target cells   Hormone diffused through phospholipid bilayer and into cell, binds to receptor, new mRNA is formed and directs synthesis of new proteins, new protein alters cells activity.  
Water soluble hormones and target cells   Can not diffuse through plasma membrane, hormone receptors are integral membrane proteins (act as 1st messenger, Cell response is turned off unless new hormone molecules arrive  
Differences of nervous system vs. endocrine system   1. NS has electrical/chemical ways of communicating, ES only has chemical 2. NS acts quick, ES is slow 3. NS adapt quickly, ES has more persistent responses 4. NS effects are specific (one organ), ES has more general wide spread affects (many organs)  
GAS   General Adaption Syndrome. Stress response is a set of bodily changes.  


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