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A&P Chp 3 Cells

Anatomy & Physiology I - Chapter 3 Cells: The Living Units

Name four concepts of the cell theory 1) Basic strutural and functional units of life 2) Organism depends on cells 3) Biochemical activities of a cell are dictated by their organelles 4) Continuity of life has a cellular basis
What is the driving forceof diffusion? concentration radient
Who move faster? potassium permarganate
What are the cell three major regions? plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus
Is phosphate facing inside or outside? both
Does red blood cell contantly changes shape? yes
Composed of a double layer of phospholipids embedded w/ small amounts of cholestrol and proteins Plasma membrane
_____ proteins are firmly inserted Integral
______ proteins are not embedded in the plasma membrane Peripheral
Fingerlike extension that increase the surface area of the cell Microvilli
What is a impermeable junction? Tight junctions
What is mechanical couplings that prevent their spearation and reduce the chance of tearing? Desmosomes
What is communication junctions? Gap junctions
Does not use energy... Passive process
Uses energy (ATP)... Active process
High to Low concentration area Diffusion
Diffusion of water... Osmosis
Moves through the PM by protein carriers or by channels Facilitated diffusion
_____ molecule cannot get through cell water
The process that forces water and solutes through...by fluid, or hydrostatic, pressure is called Filtration
Source of energy-hydrolysis of ATP; Transport protein changes shape and pumps molecules against their concetration gradient is called Primary active transport
Co-transport of two solutes... Secondary active transport
Large particles, macromolecules, and fluids are transported across... Vesicular transport
Process used to move substances from inside the cell to the extracellular environment Exocytosis
Vesicular transport processes that move molecules using protein-coated vesicles is Endocytosis
What is located between the plasma membrane and the nucleus? Cytoplasm
What is kidney shapes; cristae; site of ATP synthesis? Mitochondria
What is composed of RNA and protein; attached to rough ER; protein synthesis? Ribosomes
What is externally studded w/ ribosomes; cisterna; phospholipids synthesis? Rough ER
What has no ribosomes; site for lipid and cholestrol? Smooth ER
What looks like a "stack of pancakes"; package, modify, and transport protein? Golgi Apparatus
What contains digestive enzymes; acid; destruction of worn cells parts ("autolysis") and foreign particles? Lysosomes
What contains oxidase enzymes; detoxify toxic substances; breaks down hydrogen peroxide? Peroxisomes
What is made of tubulin proteins; support cell and give it shape; form centrioles and cilia and flagella, if present? Microtubules
What are the paired cylinders that aid chromosome movement during mitosis? Centrioles
What is the largest organelle that is the control center of all the cell activity? Nucleus
What is dense sperical bodies; RNA and proteins; synthesis of ribosomes? Nucleolus
What is granular, threadlike; DNA and histone proteins; synthesis DNA genes? Chromatin
What occurs in the interphase? organ
What phase does DNA take place? interphase
mRNA means... codon
tRNA means... anti-codon
What cell organelles function in supporting cellular structures and in generating cell movements? Cytoskeleton
What molecular components of the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane possesses a charged polar "head" and an uncharged non-polar "tail"? Phospholipid
What nucleic acid molecules are involved in transcription but NOT translation in the synthesis of a particular polypeptide? DNA
What cell structures are involved in propelling substances across cell surfaces? Cilia
What enzyme is the first one needed for DNA replication? Helicase
Cytokinesis is the process that divides the cell nucleus into two nuclei False, Cytokinesis is the division of the parent cell cytoplasm into two daughter cells
The process in which DNA's genetic code is copied onto messenger RNA molecules is known as translation. False, DNA's genetic code is copied onto messenger RNA molecules by a process known as transcription
DNA's genetic code is copied onto messenger RNA molecules by a process known as... transcription
The two major periods in the life cycle of a cell are interphase and the mitotic phase True
Created by: kenstack