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A&P Chp 5 The Skin
Anatomy & Physiology I - Chapter 5: The Integumentary System
|What is a keratinzed stratified squamous epithelium; outermost layer protective shield of skin?
|Name the four cells of the Epidermis?
|Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Langerhan cells (AKA epidermal dendritic cells), and Merkel cells
|What produces a fibrous protective protein called keratin?
|What epithelial cells synthesize the pigment melanin?
|What has macrophages that help activate the immune system?
|What cells is associated with sensory nerve endings?
|Name the FIVE layers of the epidermis in order?
|1) Corneum 2) Luciderm 3) Granulosum 4) Spinosum 5) Basale (Cookie-Lovers-Gets-Sugar-Brown)
|What is the deepest epidermal layer and is the site of mitosis; germinating layer?
|What has several cell layers thick and contains keratinocytes, melanin granules, and the highest concentration of Langerhans' cells?
|Spinosum (prickly layer)
|What contains keratinocytes that are undergoing a great deal of physical changes, turning them into tough outer cells of the epidermis?
|What is found only in the thick skin and is complsed of the dead keratinocytes?
|What is the outermost layer of the epidermis?
|What is the second major skin region, is strong, flexible connective tissue?
|Name the two dermis layers?
|Papillary and Reticular
|The thin, highly areolar layer connective tissue containing a woven mat of collagen and elastin fibers is called...
|What is a dense irregular connective tissue layer called?
|Name the three pigment skin color.
|Melanin, Carotene, and Hemoglobin
|What is a polymer made of tyrosine amino acids, yellow to reddish-brown to black in color?
|What is the layer of skin beneath of the dermis and is composed of adipose?
|Sweat glands is also called...
|Name the two types of sweat glands:
|eccrine and apocrine
|What glands produce true sweat, are most numerous, and are mostly on the palms of hands, soles of feet, and forehead; also called merocrine sweat glands?
|What is confined to the axillary and anogenital areas and produce true sweat plus fatty substances and proteins?
|Apocrine sweat glands
|Modified sweat glands found lining the ear canal that secrete ear wax, or cerumen is called...
|Modified sweat glands found in the breasts that secrete milk is called...
|What is a simple alveolar glands found all over the body except the palms of the hands and soles of the feet that secrete sebum, an oily secretion; function as holocrine glands secreting their product into a hair follicle or to the pore of the skin?
|Sebaceous oil glands
|Name the THREE hair center layers cells:
|Medulla (core), cortex (surrounds the medulla), cuticle (single layer)
|Hairs can be classified as...
|vellus or terminal
|The body hair of children and adult females is of the pale, fine hair called...
|The coarser, londer hair of the eyebrows and scalp is called...
|Hair growth and density are influenced mostly importantly by...
|nutrition and hormones
|On an average, how many scalp hairs do we loose daily?
|Hair thinning and some degree of baldness is called...
|What is the most common type, male pattern baldness determined by?
|gene and sex-influenced condition
|A scale-like modification of the epidermis; made up of hard keratin and have a fee edge, a body, and a proximal root is called...
|The deeper layers beneath the nail is called..
|The thickened part of the nail bed is called...
|What is another name of cuticle?
|The part beneath the free edge where dirt and debris are collected is called...
|Name the THREE types of skin barriers:
|chemical, physical, and biological
|Name the skin functions:
|Protection, Body temp., Cutaneous sensation, Metabolic, Blood reservoir, and Excretion
|What barriers include skin secretions and melanin?
|What barriers provides the continuity of skin and the hardness of its keratinized cells?
|Physical or Mechanical
|What is the waterproofing epidermis that block the diffusion of water?
|Name the FIVE substances that DO penetrate the skin in limited amounts:
|1) lipid-soluble 2) oleoresins 3) organic solvents 4) salts of heavy meterals 5) drugs agent called penetration enhancers
|What is the barrier that include Langerhans' cells of the epidermis, macrophages of the dermis, and DNA?
|What does body temperature regulation do?
|sweat glands, constriction of the dermal blood vessels
|What has a sensory receptors and is part of the nervous system?
|Name the function that makes vitamin D when exposed to sunlight.
|How many percent can the blood reservoir hold in the body blood supply?
|up to 5%
|Nitrogen-containing wastes are eliminated from the body in sweat is...
|What is an important avenue for water and salt (sodium chloride) loss?
|The most common skin disorders are...
|bacterial, viral, or yeast infections
|What layer handles germinating?
|Name the two stratums that can be found in the palm and soles:
|Lucidum and corneum
|What are holocrine glands?
|sebaceous oil glands
|What are the ABCD (E) rule?
|A=asymmetry, B=border irregularly, C=color, D=diameter, E=elevation
|What is the least malignant and the most common skin cancer?
|basal cell carcinoma
|Grow rapidly and metastasize if not removed.
|squamous cell carcinoma
|Most dangerous skin cancer and highly metastatic and resistant to chemotherapy.