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A&P Chp 5 The Skin

Anatomy & Physiology I - Chapter 5: The Integumentary System

What is a keratinzed stratified squamous epithelium; outermost layer protective shield of skin? Epidermis
Name the four cells of the Epidermis? Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Langerhan cells (AKA epidermal dendritic cells), and Merkel cells
What produces a fibrous protective protein called keratin? Keratinocytes
What epithelial cells synthesize the pigment melanin? Melanocytes
What has macrophages that help activate the immune system? Langerhans cells
What cells is associated with sensory nerve endings? Merkel cells
Name the FIVE layers of the epidermis in order? 1) Corneum 2) Luciderm 3) Granulosum 4) Spinosum 5) Basale (Cookie-Lovers-Gets-Sugar-Brown)
Stratum means... layer
What is the deepest epidermal layer and is the site of mitosis; germinating layer? Basale layer
What has several cell layers thick and contains keratinocytes, melanin granules, and the highest concentration of Langerhans' cells? Spinosum (prickly layer)
What contains keratinocytes that are undergoing a great deal of physical changes, turning them into tough outer cells of the epidermis? Granulosum
What is found only in the thick skin and is complsed of the dead keratinocytes? Lucidum
What is the outermost layer of the epidermis? Corneum
What is the second major skin region, is strong, flexible connective tissue? Dermis
Name the two dermis layers? Papillary and Reticular
The thin, highly areolar layer connective tissue containing a woven mat of collagen and elastin fibers is called... Papillary
What is a dense irregular connective tissue layer called? Reticular
Name the three pigment skin color. Melanin, Carotene, and Hemoglobin
What is a polymer made of tyrosine amino acids, yellow to reddish-brown to black in color? Melanin
What is the layer of skin beneath of the dermis and is composed of adipose? Hypodermis
Sweat glands is also called... sudoriferous glands
Name the two types of sweat glands: eccrine and apocrine
What glands produce true sweat, are most numerous, and are mostly on the palms of hands, soles of feet, and forehead; also called merocrine sweat glands? Eccrine
What is confined to the axillary and anogenital areas and produce true sweat plus fatty substances and proteins? Apocrine sweat glands
Modified sweat glands found lining the ear canal that secrete ear wax, or cerumen is called... Ceruminous glands
Modified sweat glands found in the breasts that secrete milk is called... Mammary glands
What is a simple alveolar glands found all over the body except the palms of the hands and soles of the feet that secrete sebum, an oily secretion; function as holocrine glands secreting their product into a hair follicle or to the pore of the skin? Sebaceous oil glands
Name the THREE hair center layers cells: Medulla (core), cortex (surrounds the medulla), cuticle (single layer)
Hairs can be classified as... vellus or terminal
The body hair of children and adult females is of the pale, fine hair called... vellus
The coarser, londer hair of the eyebrows and scalp is called... terminal
Hair growth and density are influenced mostly importantly by... nutrition and hormones
On an average, how many scalp hairs do we loose daily? 90
Hair thinning and some degree of baldness is called... alopecia
What is the most common type, male pattern baldness determined by? gene and sex-influenced condition
A scale-like modification of the epidermis; made up of hard keratin and have a fee edge, a body, and a proximal root is called... Nails
The deeper layers beneath the nail is called.. nail bed
The thickened part of the nail bed is called... nail matrix
What is another name of cuticle? Eponychium
The part beneath the free edge where dirt and debris are collected is called... hyponychium
Name the THREE types of skin barriers: chemical, physical, and biological
Name the skin functions: Protection, Body temp., Cutaneous sensation, Metabolic, Blood reservoir, and Excretion
What barriers include skin secretions and melanin? Chemical
What barriers provides the continuity of skin and the hardness of its keratinized cells? Physical or Mechanical
What is the waterproofing epidermis that block the diffusion of water? glycolipids
Name the FIVE substances that DO penetrate the skin in limited amounts: 1) lipid-soluble 2) oleoresins 3) organic solvents 4) salts of heavy meterals 5) drugs agent called penetration enhancers
What is the barrier that include Langerhans' cells of the epidermis, macrophages of the dermis, and DNA? biological
What does body temperature regulation do? sweat glands, constriction of the dermal blood vessels
What has a sensory receptors and is part of the nervous system? Cutaneous sensation
Name the function that makes vitamin D when exposed to sunlight. Metabolic
How many percent can the blood reservoir hold in the body blood supply? up to 5%
Nitrogen-containing wastes are eliminated from the body in sweat is... Excretion
What is an important avenue for water and salt (sodium chloride) loss? profuse sweating
The most common skin disorders are... bacterial, viral, or yeast infections
What layer handles germinating? basale
Name the two stratums that can be found in the palm and soles: Lucidum and corneum
What are holocrine glands? sebaceous oil glands
What are the ABCD (E) rule? A=asymmetry, B=border irregularly, C=color, D=diameter, E=elevation
What is the least malignant and the most common skin cancer? basal cell carcinoma
Grow rapidly and metastasize if not removed. squamous cell carcinoma
Most dangerous skin cancer and highly metastatic and resistant to chemotherapy. melanoma
Created by: kenstack
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