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A&P Chp 6 Bone & Ske

Anatomy & Physiology I - Chapter 6: Bone and Skeletal Tissue

Cartilage tissue is mostly water
The skeletal cartilage has no nerves or blood vessels, is surrounded by a layer of dense irregular connective tissue called perichondrium
What is contain in the perichondrium? blood vessels
Name the three types of skeletal cartilages hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilages
What are the most abundant skeletal cartilages that provide flexibility? Hyaline cartilage
Name the cartilages that cover the ends of most bones at movable joints articular cartilage
Skeletal hyaline cartilages include Articular, Costal, Respiratory, Nasal cartilages
What cartilage can stretch and bend? Elastic cartilage
Where is the elastic cartilage located? Ear and Epiglottis
Highly compressible and tensile strength Fibrocartilages
Where is the fibrocartilages located? Knee and vertebrae disc
Cartilage has ___ ____ which can accommodate mitosis flexible matrix
Cartilage grows in two ways Appositional and Interstitial growth
"growth from outside" appositional growth
"growth from inside" interstitial growth
Calcium salts in the matrix can harden is a process called calcification
Typically, cartilage growth stop during what stage adolescense
Is calcified cartilage a bone? No, cartilage and bone always have different tissues
206 bones in the human body divided into two groups: axial and appendicular skeleton
Long axis of the body (skull, vertebral column, and rib cage) axial skeleton
Name the skeleton that consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the girdles (shoulder bones and hip bones) that is connected to the axial skeleton appendicular skeleton
What part of the bones helps to get us from place to place? limbs
Name the bone that have a shaft and two ends, and has all limb bones except patella, wrists, and ankle bones Long bones
Wrist and ankle bones; roughly cube shaped Short bones
Special type of bone that are form in tendon Sesamoid bones
Name the type of bones that includes most skull, the sternum, scapula, and ribs Flat bones
Complicated shapes bones that includes vertebrae and hip bones Irregular bones
Name the FIVE functions of bones: Support, Protection, Movement, Mineral and growth factor storage, and Blood cell formation
Bone is reservoir for what TWO most important types of minerals? calcium and phosphate
Where does the blood cell formation or hematopoieses occurs? in the marrow cavities of certain bones
Is bones an organs? Yes, cause they have different tissues
Name the three levels of bone structure: Gross, Microscopic, Chemical
Projections, depressions, and openings that serve as sites of muscle, ligament, and tendon attachment, as joint surfaces, or blood vessels and nerves bone markings
The dense outer layer that looks smooth and solid is called compact bone
Consists of honeycomb, needle-like, or flat pieces, called trabeculae is called spongy bone
Blood cell formation Hematopoiesis
What type of bone are found mostly in the hip? spongy bone
Mature bone cells Osteocytes
Location of red bone marrow Spongy bone
Cartilage cells Chondrocytes
Bone-building cells Osteoblasts
Process of bone formation Osteogenesis or ossification
Replacement of connective tissue membranes with bony tissue Intramembranous ossification
Replacement of hyaline cartilage with bony tissue Endochondral ossification
Growth region (in length) of the long bone Epiphyseal plate
Growth of bone in diameter Appositional growth
Narrow passageways that contain cytoplasmic extensions of osteocytes Canaliculi
Basic functional unit of compact bone Osteon
Tiny plates of bone material found in spongy bone Trabeculae
Concentric rings that surround the Haversian canal Lamellae
Perforating canals that carry interconnected blood vessels to the Haversian canal Volkmann canals
Structures contained in the central canal of an osteon Blood vessels
The substance contained in the medullary cavity of bones in an adult Yellow bone marrow
Substance contained in the spaces of the spongy bone Red bone marrow
The inorganic minerals contained in the intercellular matrix of bone Calcium and phosphorus (hydroxyapatite)
The hormone that functions to decrease the level of calcium in the blood Calcitonin
The hormone that raises the level of calcium ions in the blood Parathyroid hormone
The hormone that is used in hormone therapy to reduce osteoporosis Estrogen
Elevated levels of a hormone that could cause premature closure of the epiphyseal plates Testosterone
A hormone that is necessary for proper bone formation Thyroxine
A painful infection of the bone often caused by bacteria Osteomyelitis
A condition occurs with aging that causes a gradual reduction in bone mass Osteopenia
Hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone would produce changes in the bone similar to those associated with Osteomalacia
A condition causing bow legs in a child Rickets
A painful condition that occurs when the bones become weak and thin and tend to fracture easily Osteoporosis
A fracture in which the bone breaks cleanly and does not penetrate the skin Simple fracture
fracture that has broken ends of the bone protrude through the soft tissues and the skin Compound fracture
A fracture in which the bone is crushed Compression fracture
A fracture in which broken bone ends are forced into each other Impacted fracture
A fracture in which bone fragments into many pieces Comminuted fracture
Long bone Femur of the leg
Short bone Carpals of wrist
Flat bone Sternum of breastbone
Irregular bone Vertebrae of spinal column and hip bones
Sesamoid bone Patella of knee
Large, rough, rounded projections Tuberosity
Crest Narrow ridge of bone
Trochanter Very large, blunt, irregularly-shaped process
Tubercle Small rounded projection or process
Spine Sharp, slender, often pointed projection
Bony expansion carried on a narrow neck Head
Smooth, nearly flat articular surface Facet
Rounded articular projection Condyle
Arm-like bar of bone Ramus
Canal-like passageway Meatus
Cavity within a bone Sinus
Shallow, basin-like depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface Fossa
Furrow Groove
Narrow, slit-like opening fissure
Round or oval opening through a bone foramen
Name the intramembranous ossification or spongy bone stages in order: Stage 1-Ossification center in the fibrous membrane, Stage 2-Bone matrix within the fibrous membrane, Stage 3-Woven bone and the periosteum , Stage 4-Compact bone plates and red marrow
Name the endochondroal ossification in a long bone process in order: 1-Bone collar around the diaphysis of the hyaline model , 2-Calcification of cartilage in the center of the diaphysis, 3-Invasion of internal cavities by the periosteal bud, 4-Medullary cavity as ossification continues, 5-Ossification if the epiphysis
Name the growth of a long bone stages in order: 1-Cartilage cells undergo mitosis, 2-Cartilage cells undergo hypertrophy followed by calcification of the matrix, 3-Dead cartilage cells appear, matrix begins deteriorating, 4-Ossification occurs on the epiphyseal plate next to the medullary cavity
Most abundant skeletal cartilage Hyaline cartilage
Cartilage-forming cell Chrondroblast
Able to withstand large amounts of compression Fibrocartilage
Located in the external ear and epiglottis Elastic cartilage
Encloses brain and other soft organs function as... Protection
Site of attachment for skeletal muscles function as... Movement
Calcium phosphate repository function as... Mineral storage
Blood cell production function as... Hematopoiesis
Bone-destroying cell Osteoclast
Bone stem cell Osteoprogenitor cell
Primary ossification center Diaphysis
Secondary ossification center Epiphysis
Site of length increase in long bones Growth plate
Process of long bone development Endochondral ossification
Name the 4 stages of bone repair: 1) Hematoma formation 2) Fibrocartilaginous callus formation 3) Bony callus 4) Bone remodeling
Caused by tearing of blood vessels in and around fracture site Hematoma formation
Activity of fibroblasts and osteoblasts creates an overgrown splint around the fracture site Fibrocartilage callus
Trabeculae invade callus and begin to replace fibrous tissue Bony callus formation
Excess bony material is removed from the external and internal surfaces of the diaphysis Bone remodeling
Layers of bone Lamellae
Cavities in bone where cells live. Lacunae
Major organic fiber of bone. Collagen
Major inorganic component of bone Calcium phosphate
Has length greater than width Long bone
Length and width equal. Short bone
Bone with complex shape. Irregular bone
Thin bone. Flat bone
Ovoid bone found in tendon. Sesamoid bone
Shaft of a long bone Diaphysis
Hollow space in the shaft. Medullary cavity
Expanded portion of the long bone at its ends Epiphysis
Thin connective tissue membrane that lines the medullary cavity. Endosteum
Fibrous connective tissue membrane that covers the outer surface of long bone Periosteum
A major difference between bone tissue and other connective tissues lies in which of the following? The composition of the intercellular substance of bone
Which of the following statements concerning the periosteum of a bone is NOT true? Periosteum does NOT cover sesamoid bones, the articular surfaces of bones, or extend around tendon and ligament
Which of the following factors is NOT believed to affect bone growth? proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids
During fetal development intramembranous ossification takes place in connective tissue membranes
Elevated levels of calcium ion in the blood stimulate the secretion of the hormone calcitonin
Endochondral and intramembranous are terms that are used to describe the development of bone
Endochondral ossification begins with the formation of a cartilage model
What is the function of the skeletal system? protect, store minerals, support the body and form new blood cells
Long bones differ from flat bones in that long bones have epiphyses
Mary is 50 years old. During a checkup, a bone scan reveals that portions of her skeleton show signs of osteoporosis. Her physician suggests hormone therapy after reviewing the test results. What hormone is prescribed for Mary? Estrogen
The bones of the skeleton store energy reserves as lipids in areas of yellow marrow
The lacunae of bone contain osteocytes
The process of bone growth at the epiphyseal plate is similar to endochondral ossification.
The two types of osseous tissue are compact bone and spongy bone
When cartilage is produced at the epiphyseal side of the metaphysis at the same rate as bone is deposited on the opposite side, bones grow longer
When the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone long bones have reached their adult length.
When does Intramembranous ossification begins? begins within a connective tissue membrane.
A fracture in the shaft of a bone would occur in the diaphysis
Growth of a cartilage in which the chondrocytes within the matrix become active and proliferate is known as interstitial growth
Osteocytes maintain contact with the blood vessels of the central canal through canaliculi
Spongy bone contains all of the following except true osteons
The bones in the long axis of the body make up the axial skeleton
Which of the following is a canal-like passageway? meatus
Which of the following characteristics of skeletal cartilage limits its thickness? It is avascular and receives most of its nourishment from the perichondrium that surrounds it.
Which of the following structures is made of elastic cartilage? the epiglottis
The menisci of the knee are made of fibrocartilage
Which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth of cartilage? Chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix from within the cartilage.
___________ bones act to alter the direction of tendon pull Sesamoid
_______ is stored in the matrix of bones calcium
A narrow slit-like opening in a bone is referred to as a spine
Which of the following structures anchors the periosteum to the underlying bone? perforating
Which of the following is the site where bone marrow is routinely sampled in an adult? the sternum
Bone forming cells originate from osteoprogenitor cells
A Haversian system is the functional unit of lamellar bone
The twisting of a long bone is prevented by which of the following? circumferential lamella
It is currently thought that sacrificial bonds between_______ provide resilience to bone tissue. collagen molecules
Hydroxyapatite in bone matrix that gives bone its hardness is primarily composed of calcium and phosphates
65% of bone mass is composed of hydroxyapatites
In the human embryo, before eight weeks the skeleton is composed of fibrous membrane
All bones of the skeleton below the base of the skull are developed by endochondral ossification except the clavicle
Which type of bone only has primary ossification centers? short bones
In month three of endochondral ossification, the first structure to be formed is a collection of elements known as the ____________ that invades the bone cavities present at this time. periosteal bud
Every week we recycle _____ of our bone mass. 5%
Which of the following of the following statements about osteoclasts is incorrect? Osteoclasts only reabsorb old bone matrix
Which of the following hormones' primary function is to regulate bone density? leptin
If a breastfeeding mother becomes vitamin D deficient, what is the most likely disease to develop in the nursing infant? rickets
Which of the following fractures would be the most likely not to heal? a comminuted fracture
How does alendronate help treat osteoporosis? It suppresses osteoclast activity
Created by: kenstack