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Endocrine System

Hormones and endocrine glands

Define hormone A chemical messenger that arose the body's tissues and cells by stimulating responses in RECEPTIVE tissues/organs and sense changes in their metabolic activity
Target cells/hormone receptors Cells will not respond to a hormone unless it contains the appropriate receptor
What glands are ductless gland Endocrine
What glands do have ducts Exocrine
How do Endocrine glands secrete Secrete hormones into bloodstream. Has intracellular effects
How do exocrine glands secrete Secretes product out through ducts into body cavities on surface (mucus, mammary, sweat, oil, and digestive.) Extracellular effects
Name 3 functions of hormones 1. Help maintain homeostasis 2. Growth and development 3. Reproduction
Define diabetes mellitus Impaired blood glucose homeostasis
What are normal blood glucose levels 70-100mg/dl after fasting and 140< after meal/glucose
What are impaired glucose (pre diabetic) blood levels 100-126 after fasting or 140-200 after meal/glucose
What are diabetic blood glucose levels 126+ after fasting or 200+ after meal/glucose
What makes the hormones for the posterior pituitary gland and what hormones The Hypothalamus. Oxytocin and Antidieuretic (ADH)
Where is the pituitary gland housed The sella turcica of sphenoid bone
Anterior pituitary Receives "releasing" or "inhibiting" control hormones from hypothalamus by blood system
Posterior pituitary hormone travel Neurons from hypothalamus descend directly into the lobe. Hormones from hypothalamus secreted directly by axon terminals in the pituitary
Another name for anterior pituitary gland Adenohypophysis
Another name for posterior pituitary gland Neurohypophysis
What hormones are produced from the anterior pituitary gland, specifically the pars distalis 1. Adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) 2. Thyroid Stimulating (TSH) 3. Growth hormone (GH) 4. Prolactin (PLH) 5. Follicle Stimulating (FSH) 6. Luteinizing (LH)
What hormone is produced in the pars intermedia Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
Adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) function and location Stimulates activity of the cortex of the adrenal gland which then produces the "stress hormone", cortisol (anterior pituitary)
Thyroid stimulating Hormone (TSH) function and location Stimulates production and release of thyroid hormone (anterior pituitary)
Growth hormone (GH) function and location Stimulates growth of bone, cartilage, and muscle, etc. Timing and amount released determines body size (anterior pituitary)
Prolactin Hormone (PRL) function and locaton Stimulates breast development. Promotes and maintains lactation after childbirth (anterior pituitary)
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) function and location Causes formation of ovarian follicles and stimulates them to produce estrogen. Stimulates sperm development in men (anterior pituitary)
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) function and location Initiates ovulation, maintains corpus luteum which produces progesterone. Stimulates testosterone secretion in males (anterior pituitary)
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) Causes release of melanin pigment. Very active in fetal life, but very small or absent in adulthood (pars intermedia)
What hormones does the posterior pituitary produce Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) and Oxytocin
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) function and location Reduces urine output and sweating, increases water reabsorption in the kidneys, resulting in increase in BP (posterior pituitary)
Oxytocin function and location Causes uterine contractions in labor, causes milk let down in lactating mothers, feelings of affection (love hormone) (posterior pituitary)
What are the thyroid hormones called Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine (T3 & T4)
What secretes the thyroid hormones Follicular cells that surround the thyroid follicles
What are the thyroid follicles filled with Collide
What do the parafollicular (C cells) in the thyroid secrete Calcitonin ("tones your bones")
Calcitonin Decreases blood calcium levels, promotes Ca2 deposition and bone formation
What is the function of the thyroid Maintain body's metabolism
What do the cheif cells secrete Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Name functions of the parathyroid gland/hormones Raises blood calcium levels. Increase activity of osteoclasts
What and where are oxyphil cells Appear at puberty, no known function. Blurry/rosy spots on parathyroid
What are the 2 general layers of the adrenal gland Cortex and medulla
What are the 4 layers from outside to inside of the adrenal gland 1. Fibrous capsule 2. Zona glomeruosa 3. Zona Fasciculata 4. Zona reticularis
Where are the adrenal glands On top of kidneys
What are the 3 hormones produced by the adrenal glands and from which zone are they produced 1. Aldosterone from zona glomeruosa 2. Cortisol from zona fasiculata 3. Androgens from zona reticularis
What does the medulla secrete Catecholamines: Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Function of aldosterone Increases blood volume by causing kidneys to retain sodium in exchange for potassium. Increased blood volume increases BP
Function of cortisol Released in response from stress. Increases formation from protein and fat breakdown. Decreases inflammation
Function of androgens Male sex hormones produced in small quantities and then converted into estrogens upon entering blood
Epinephrine and norepinephrine function Fight or flight response. Increase heart rate, increase skeletal muscle blood flow, decrease skin blood flow
What is the endocrine portion of the pancreas Small Islets of langerhans (blood glucose regulation)
What is the exocrine portion of the pancreas Large portion of the pancreas, Acini (digestion)
What is from the beta cells Insulin
What is from the alpha cells Glucagon
Insulin function Secreted after high carb meals. Stimulates glucose and amino acid uptake. Antagonizes glucagon
Glucagon function Secreted in very low carb and high protein diet or fasting. Stimulates glycogenolysis
Somatostatin function Secreted with in high blood glucose and amino acids after a meal. Inhibit both insulin and glucagon and may increase efficiency in digestion
What are the 3 "poly's" in diabetes mellitus Polyuria (increase urine production), Polydipsia (increase thirst), Polyphagia (increase eating)
Type 1 diabetes Insulin dependent. Autoimmune disorder. Immune system destroys beta cells in pancreas (caused by lack of insulin)
Type 2 diabetes Insulin resistance. Caused by an insensitivity of cells to insulin
Estrogen function and production Ovulation, secondary sex characteristic, regulation of menstrual cycle, produced by granulosa cells and secondarily by placenta during pregnancy
What hormone stimulates ovarian production of estrogens FSH
Progesterone Promotes growth and development of endometrial lining of uterus. With fertilization, it is secreted by corpus luteum and placenta once functional
Testosterone Stimulate development of male sex organs, secondary sexual characteristics, and sperm production.
Interstitial (leydig) cells function and location Produces testosterone in the presence of LH. Found adjacent to seminiferous tubules (sight of sperm production)
Pineal gland Produces serotonin by day and converts it to melatonin in the dark
What glycoprotein hormone does the kidney produce Erythropoietin (EPO)
Erythropoietin (EPO) function Sensitive to low oxygen levels in blood coming into kidney. Bleeding or moving to high altitudes can produce this secretion
What other hormone does the kidney produce and where does the hormone derive from Calcitriol. Derives from calciferol
Calcitriol (Vit D3) Promote absorption of Ca2+ and phosphate in gut. Inhibits PTH secertion
How does calciferol convert to calcitriol Calciferol is synthesized in skin when exposed to UV, then converted to calcidiol in the liver, and then carried to the kidneys and converted into calcitrol and produced in the presence of PTH
What is the corpus luteum Is developed from an ovarian follicle and what is left after ovulation and produces progesterone.
Hyposecretion Inadequate hormone release. Tumor or lesion destroys glands. Head trauma affects pituitary gland’s ability to secrete ADH
Diabetes insipidus Chronic polyuria (form of hyposecretion)
Hypersecretion Excessive hormone release. Tumors or autoimmune disorders.
Toxic goiter (graves disease) Antibodies mimic effect of TSH on the thyroid (form of hypersecretion)
Acromegaly Pituitary disorder:Hypersecretion of growth hormones. Thickening of the bones and soft tissues. Problems in childhood or adolescence. Gigantism = oversecretion. Dwarfism = hyposecretion
Thyroid gland disorder Hyperthyroidism (weight loss, tremors.) Endemic goiter (enlarged thyroid gland.) Graves disease
Congenital hypothyroidism Decrease thyroid hormone. Infant suffers bone development, thickened facial features, low temp, lethargy, dwarfism, brain damage
Myxedema Adult hypothyroidism Decrease TH. Low metabolic rate, sluggish, sleepy, weight gain, high BP, tissue swelling
Hypoparathyroid PT disorder. Surgical excision during thyroid surgery. Fatal tetany in 3-5 days
Hyperparathyroid Excess PTH secretion. Tumor in gland. Causes soft and fragile bones. Increase blood Ca+2. Kidney stones (renal calculi)
Cushion syndrome Disorder of adrenal gland. Excess cortical secretion. Hyperglycemia, hypertension, edema. Muscle and bone loss. Buffalo hump & moon face
Adrenogenital syndrome Disorder or adrenal glands. Adrenal androgen hyper secretion accompanies Cushing. Enlargement of sexual organs in children. Masculine effects in women.
Addison's disease Hyposecretion of glucocorticoids. Hypoglycemia, muscle weakness, low BP, dehydration due to decreased Na+ in blood, potential cardiac arrest.
Hyperinsulinism From excess insulin injection, or pancreatic islet tumor. Causes hypoglycemia, weakness, and hunger. Triggers secretion of epinephrine, GH, and glucagon. (Side effects: anxiety, sweating,)
Insulin shock Uncorrected hyperinsulinism with disorientation, convulsions, or unconsciousness
Thymus Secretes hormones that regulate development and later activation of T-lymphocytes (superior to heart)
Lipid soluble hormones and target cells Hormone diffused through phospholipid bilayer and into cell, binds to receptor, new mRNA is formed and directs synthesis of new proteins, new protein alters cells activity.
Water soluble hormones and target cells Can not diffuse through plasma membrane, hormone receptors are integral membrane proteins (act as 1st messenger, Cell response is turned off unless new hormone molecules arrive
Differences of nervous system vs. endocrine system 1. NS has electrical/chemical ways of communicating, ES only has chemical 2. NS acts quick, ES is slow 3. NS adapt quickly, ES has more persistent responses 4. NS effects are specific (one organ), ES has more general wide spread affects (many organs)
GAS General Adaption Syndrome. Stress response is a set of bodily changes.
Created by: Destynelamar
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