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Brain Anatomy+

3

QuestionAnswer
Motor Cortex (Function & Location) Regions of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements. Located between the frontal and parietal lobes.
Dura Mater The outermost of the three layers of the meninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Arachnoid Mater It is interposed between the two other meninges. This delicate layer is attached to the inside of the dura and surrounds the brain and spinal cord. It does not line the brain down into its sulci (folds), with the exception of the longitudinal fissure.
Pia Mater Delicate innermost layer of the meninges, the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. The word finds its roots in Latin, meaning literally "tender mother." It is impermeable to fluid and protects and cushions the brain.
Subarachnoid Cavity - (Subarachnoid Space) In the CNS, this is the interval between the arachnoid membrane and pia mater. It has intercommunicating channels in which the cerebrospinal fluid is contained.
Sulcus (Definition) A depression in the surface of the brain. It surrounds the gyri, creating the characteristic appearance of the brain in humans and other large mammals.
Basal Ganglia (Function & Location) A group of nuclei of varied origin at the base of the forebrain that act as a cohesive functional unit. Organizes and coordinates movement that does not require processing. Takes over after the conscious part of learning is complete (dancing, etc.)
Amygdala (Corpus Amygdaloideum) (Function) Belongs to Limbic system. Experiencing and expressing emotion and evaluating an event's emotional significance, such as footsteps. Perform a primary role in the processing and memory of emotional reactions, and considered part of the limbic system.
Limbic System (Function) A set of brain structures (thalmus, hippocampus, amygdalae, cingulate gyrus, hypothalmus, fornix, BG, olfactory, septum), that supports emotion, behavior, motivation, long-term memory, and olfaction. All emotional experience comes from here.
Hippocampus (Function & Location) Belongs to Limbic system. Plays important roles in consolidation of info from short-to long-term memory and spatial navigation. Located in the medial temporal lobe. One of the first to damage in Alzheimer's. Entry for memories (sights, sounds).
Midbrain (Function & Location) The upper portion of the brain stem. It is associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.
Pons (Function & Location) Middle of brainstem. Sleep, respiration, swallowing, bladder control, hearing, equilibrium, taste, eye movement, facial expressions, facial sensation, and posture. Breathing (in to out). Used in sleep paralysis and helps generate dreams. Means "bridge."
Medulla Oblongata (Function & Location) Lower portion of brainstem; extension of the spinal cord. Cardiac, respiratory, vomiting, vasomotor centers, autonomic, involuntary functions of breathing, HR and BP. Without this, heart and lung activity would cease. Usually snaps in hanging suicide.
Thalamus (Function & Location) A station for nerve impulses from PNS to the cerebral cortex (and other centers of the brain) relaying sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex, along with the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness. Surrounds the third ventricle.
Cingulate Gyrus (Function & Location) Belongs to Limbic system. Receives inputs from thalamus, projects to cortex. Involved in emotion formation and pain. May directly drive conscious response to unpleasant experiences, involved in fear, prediction (and avoidance) of negative consequences.
Hypothalamus (Function & Location) Belongs to Limbic system. Most important function is to link nervous system to endocrine system via pituitary gland. Located below the thalamus, just above the brain stem. Forms the ventral part of the diencephalon. Regulates metabolic and ANS.
Pituitary Gland (Function & Location) Endocrine gland the size of a pea. Not part of the brain but a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base and rests in a small, bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (diaphragma sellae). Secretes nine hormones for homeostasis.
Pineal Gland - (Pineal Body, "Third Eye") Small endocrine gland in the brain. Shaped like a tiny pine cone and is b/t the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove near the center of the brain. Makes serotonin derivative melatonin, a hormone that modulates wake/sleep patterns and seasonal functions.
Temporal Lobe (Function & Location) Located beneath the Sylvian fissure in both hemispheres. Home to primary auditory cortex. Also important for the processing of semantics in both speech and vision. It contains the hippocampus and plays a key role in the formation of long-term memory.
Parietal Lobe (Function) Integrates sensory information particularly determining spatial sense and navigation. Enables regions of the cortex to map objects perceived visually into body coordinate positions.
Occipital Lobe (Function) The visual processing center of the brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. The two lobes are the smallest of four paired lobes in the cerebral cortex.
Frontal Lobe (Function & Near Structure Locations) Separated from the parietal lobe by central sulcus, and from temporal lobe by lateral (Sylvian) sulcus. Contains most of the dopamine-sensitive neurons, which is associated with reward, attention, short-term memory tasks, planning, and motivation.
Cerebrum - (Telencephalon) Together with the diencephalon, constitutes the forebrain.
Cerebellum (Function) ("Little Brain") Does not initiate movement, but contributes to coordination, precision, and accurate timing, posture, and balance. Important in motor control. "Fine" movements.
Broca's Area (Function & Location) Linked to speech and language production. It is (usually) in the left (dominant) hemisphere between the frontal and temporal lobe.
Wernicke's Area (Function & Location) Speech, specifically understanding of written and spoken language. The posterior section of the superior temporal gyrus in the dominant cerebral hemisphere (which is the left hemisphere in about 97% of people).
Fissures (Definition) Large depressions that divide the brain into lobes. The large furrow that divides the two hemispheres is very rarely called this though.
Carotid Artery (Function & Location) Two large blood vessels in your neck that supply the anterior portion of the brain's blood supply.
Vertebral Artery (Location) Major arteries of the neck. They branch from the subclavian arteries to form the single midline.
Vertebrobasilar Artery (Function & Location) A complex from the neck to the brain that merges together to supply blood to the posterior part of the circle of Willis and thus significant portions of the brain.
Basilar Artery (Function & Location) The single midline from the Vertebral Artery system, which supplies blood to the posterior part of the circle of Willis and thus significant portions of the brain.
Cerebral Cortex (Function & Location) A sheet of neural tissue that is outermost to the cerebrum. It covers the cerebrum and cerebellum, and is divided into left and right hemispheres. Plays a key role in memory, attention, perceptual awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Interventricular Foramina - (Foramina of Monro) (Function & Location) Channels that connect the lateral ventricles with third ventricle at the midline of the brain. Allows CSF to reach the third ventricle and then the rest of the ventricular system. Also contains choroid plexus.
Choroid Plexus (Function & Location) A structure in the ventricles of the brain where CSF is produced. It consists of modified ependymal cells.
Cisterna Magna (Function & Location) One of three principal openings in the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid and pia mater layers surrounding the brain. Located between the cerebellum and the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata.
Infundibulum - (Pituitary Stalk, "Little Bridge") (Function & Location) Connection between the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary. Tract to release hormones into the blood.
Insula - (Insular Cortex) (Function) Believed to be involved in consciousness and diverse functions linked to emotion or regulation homeostasis including: perception, motor control, self-awareness, cognitive, and experience. In relation to these it is involved in psychopathology.
Diencephalon - (Interbrain) (Function) Controls posterior forebrain structures. Appears at the upper end of the brain stem, situated between the cerebrum and the brain stem. It is made up of four distinct components: the thalamus, the subthalamus, the hypothalamus and the epithalamus.
Reticular Activating System (RAS) (Function) A set of connected nuclei in the brain responsible for regulating arousal and sleep-wake transitions. As its name implies, its most influential component is the Reticular formation.
Holes or Foramina: Right and Left Interventricular Foramina (Monro) (Location for CSF) From lateral ventricles to third ventricle.
Holes or Foramina: Cerebral Aqueduct (Sylvius) (Location for CSF) From third ventricle to fourth ventricle.
Holes or Foramina: Median Aperture (Magendie) (Location for CSF) From fourth ventricle to subarachnoid space/cisterna magna.
Holes or Foramina: Right and Left Lateral Aperture (Luschka) (Location for CSF) From fourth ventricle to subarachnoid space/cistern of great cerebral vein.
Lateral Ventricles (Function & CSF) Classified as part of the telencephalon and are the largest of the ventricles. These connect to the central third ventricle through the interventricular foramen of Monro.
Third Ventricle (Function & Location) It is a median cleft b/t the two thalami, and is filled with CSF. It is in the midline, between the left and right lateral ventricles. The Interthalamic adhesion, (fibers which connect the two thalami) runs through this.
Fourth Ventricle (Location & CSF) Located within the pons or in the upper part of the medulla. CSF entering this ventricle through the cerebral aqueduct can exit to the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord through two lateral foramina of Luschka and a single, midline foramen of Magendie.
Flow of Cerebrospinal Fluid Lateral Ventricles -> Third Ventricle via Foramen of Monro -> Fourth Ventricle via Aqueduct of Sylvius -> Subarachnoid Space via Foramina of Luschka / Magendie -> around brain & down spinal cord -> reabsorbed via Arachnoid Granulations -> venous sinuses.
Spinal Nerves: Mid Back T1 - T12 Arms, hands, heart, coronary arteries, esophagus, trachea, lungs, bronchial tubes, gallbladder, liver, stomach, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, ureters, adrenal glands, small intestines, and more.
Spinal Nerves: Lumbar Spine Lower Back L1 - L5 Large intestines, appendix, abdomen, bladder, reproductive organs, lower back, lower extremities, ankles, feet, and more.
Spinal Nerves: Sacrum and Coccyx Basebone or Tailbone Hip bones, tail bone, buttocks, rectum, anus, and more.
Spinal Nerves: Upper Cervical Spine Upper Neck C1 - C2 Head, face, upper neck, inner & middle ear, sympathetic nerve system, sinuses, eyes, auditory nerves and more.
Spinal Nerves: Cervical Spine Mid and Lower Neck C3 - C7 Neck, shoulders, thyroid, tonsils, teeth, outer ear, nose, mouth, vocal cords, and more.
Impairment to the Brain - Pre-Central Gyrus: Mono or Hemiplegia, depending on extent of damage.
Impairment to the Brain - Broca's Area (Inferior part of dominant frontal lobe) - Broca's dysphasia, motor or expressive.
Impairment to the Brain - Supplementary Motor Area: Paralysis of head, EM to opposite side.
Impairment to the Brain - Pre-Frontal Areas: Damage is often bilateral. Personality change, antisocial behavior, loss of inhibitions.
Impairment to the Brain - Para-Central Lobes: Incontinence, loss of cortical initiation.
Impairment to the Brain - Parietal Lobe: Posture, touch, passive mvt, auditory and visual comprehension, body image, awareness, ability to construct shapes (visual), numbers, lower visual fields.
Impairment to the Brain - Temporal Lobe: Cortical deafness, auditory hallucinations may occur, memory/learning disturbance, possible complex partial szs, deja/jamais vu, olfactory hallucination, aggression, antisocial, no new memories, or upper quadrantanopia (a type of blindness).
Impairment to the Brain - Occipital Lobe: Cortical blindness (can see light - light fibers terminate in midbrain), inability to direct gaze voluntarily, visual agnosia (loss of visual recognition)
Fornix - (Latin, "vault" or "arch") (Function) Belongs to Limbic system. A C-shaped bundle of fibers (axons) in the brain, and carries signals from the hippocampus to the hypothalamus.
Foramen of Monro (AKA) Interventricular Foramina
Aqueduct of Sylvius (AKA) Cerebral Aqueduct
Where is the Choroid Plexus located? Lateral Ventricles
The Circle of Willis Arteries Anterior: Carotid -> Cranial Cavity bilaterally & divides to Anterior & Middle Cerebral -> united by Anterior Communicating. Poster: Basilar formed by L&R Vertebral -> L&R Posterior Cerebral -> joins Internal Carotid & enters via Posterior Communicating.
Created by: kmburg5840