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Neuro Clinic Syndrom

Clinical Syndromes associated with Neuroanatomy

Obstruction of CSF bloodflow due to obstruction of tentorial notch or stenosis of cerebral aqueduct Non-communicating Hydrocephalus
Ischemia in watershed area of MCA and ACA Loss of ability to abduct arms, flex elboms and flex or extend hips Man in a Barrel Syndrome (Brachial Diplegia)
Hypertension, Diabetes increases spontaneity of these Abrupt onset of focal neurologic deficit often affecting the basal ganglia, pons, thalamus, and cerebellum Intracerebral Hemorrhage
IIntracranial aneurysm Sudden onset of worst headache of life Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Rupture of atherosclerotic plaque ruptures causing platelets to clump which leads to occlusion of a vessel Ischemic stroke Note: Branch points are common sources of atherosclerotic plagues
Thrombus forms in heart and travels to the brain Multiple different areas of the brain affected Cardioembolic stroke
Small penetrating arteries occlude causing holes in the brain Lacunar infarct Note: Better prognosis than other two subtypes of stroke
Lesion of lateral corticospinal tract in spinal cord Paresis/paralysis Hypertonia Hyperreflexia Positive Babinski sign UMN lesion
Lesion of ventral horn cells or nerve roots Paresis/paralysis Hyporeflexia/Areflexia Muscle atrophy Fasciculations Hypotonia LMN lesion
Lesion of one half of spinal cord (spinal cord hemisection) Ipsilateral loss of 2-pt discimination, conscious proprioception (dorsal columns) Ipsilateral UMN signs (lateral corticospinal tract) Contralateral loss of pain/temp sensation 1-2 segments below lesion (STT) Brown-Sequard Syndrome
Tabes dorsalis (demyelination of axons in dorsal columns secondary to untreated syphilis) Conditions affecting sensory nerves Positive Rhomberg Test - patient sways or loses balance when eyes are closed Note: Not a cerebellar sign (patients with cerebellar signs won't be able to balance with eyes open)
Infarct in anterior spinal artery Bilateral loss of pain/temp sensation below level of lesion (STT) Bilateral paralysis below level of lesion including UMN signs (lateral corticospinal tract) LMN signs at level of lesion (ventral horn) Paralysis of traps/SCM if in cervical spine( Anterior Cord Syndrome Note: Dorsal columns intact
Vascular events usually not involved Untreated syphilis Frederick's ataxia - inherited cause Loss of 2-pt discimination, proprioception (dorsal columns) Agraphestesia Astereognosis Positive Rhomberg sign Locomotor ataxia Posterior Cord Syndrome
Impaired CSF resorption due to problem with arachnoid granulations Communicating Hydrocephalus
Created by: kmkremer
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