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VW Neuroverview

IS-B1-Overview of Neuroanatomy

_ areas in the brain are for interpreting sensory input and combining input from different systems for eventual output Associational areas
A group of nerve fibers that connect one side of the brain with the other Commissure
The actual crossing of the nerve fibers from one side to the other Decussation
The axon portion of the neuron White Matter
The cell body part of a neuron Gray Matter
Afferent axons are Sensory or Motor? Sensory
Efferent axons are Sensory or Motor? Motor
The 2 hemispheres of the cerebrum are divided by the _ ? Longitudinal fissure
The cerebral cortex is comprised of _ matter and contains sensory and motor _ and association fibers that contributes to cognitive thought. Gray Matter, Sensory and Motor Gyri.
Subcortical White Matter contains _ axons which carry info to and from the cortex. Myelinated axons
The _ _ resides in the subcortical white matter and is the largest and most organized structure within it. Internal Capsule
A prominent group of cell bodies called the _ _ are involved in motor function and lie beneath the subcortical white matter. Basal Ganglia
The major brain lobes are divided by which two sulci? Central Sulcus (frontal and parietal) and Lateral sulcus (temporal and parietal)
The Precentral Gyrus and the Premotor Cortex can be found in which lobe of the brain? Frontal Lobe
The _ _ integrates motor functions to control voluntary movements in the frontal lobe. Precentral Gyrus
The Precentral Gyrus controls (motor or sensory) functions? Motor - voluntary movement
What is a homunculus? What does it represent? A homunculus is "little man" depicts the relative sizes of populations of neurons associated with specific body parts
The Superior, MIddle and Inferior frontal gyri are all part of the _ cortex. Premotor cortex
Broca's motor speech area can be found in the _ frontal gyrus. Inferior
The Parietal Lobe is involved in _ processing such as pain, touch, etc. Somatosensory
The _ _ in the parietal lobe receives tactile information. Postcentral Gyrus
What 4 gyri reside on the dorsal surface of the frontal lobe? Precentral, Superior, Middle and Inferior frontal gyri
What 5 gyri reside on dorsal surface of the parietal lobe? Postcentral, Superior parietal lobule, Inferior parietal lobule (containing Supramarginal gyrus and Angular gyrus)
The _ parietal lobule contains these two gyri. Supramarginal and Angular
A speech/language association area called _ area receives auditory and visual information and is located in the _ parietal lobule. Wernicke's, Inferior
What 3 gyri reside on the lateral surface of the temporal lobe? What deep lateral gyrus is superior and medial to the _ temporal gyrus? Superior, Middle and Inferior Temporal Gyri. Heschls' gyrus is deep, superior and medial to the Superior Temporal Gyrus.
Heschl's gyrus is also called the primary _ area. Primary Auditory Area
The occipital lobe contains 2 gyri best seen on the medial aspect of the brain. Cuneus (wedge) gyrus and Lingual (tongue) gyrus
The _-_ sulcus separates the parietal lobe from the occipital lobe. What lies directly inferior to this sulcus? Parieto-occipital sulcus. The Cuneus and Lingual gyri.
What sulcus separates the lingual and cuneus gyri? The Calcarine Sulcus
The precuneus gyrus (rostral to the cuneus gyrus) is responsible for _ association. Visual
The _ gyrus is part of the motor homunculus representing foot and LE AND sensory homunculus representing genitalia, foot and LE. Why is this so? Paracentral gyrus - because it is around the central sulcus and therefore contains part of the pre and part of the postcentral gyri.
This structure is part of the "limbic lobe" and controls mood, emotions, behaviors, learning and visceral processes. Cingulate Gyrus
The Cingulate gyrus is located superior to the _ _ and inferior to the _ and _ gyri. Superior to Corpus Callosum, inferior to the frontal and paracentral gyri.
This structure is a huge axonal fiber bundle that relays information to and from the right and left hemispheres. Corpus Callosum
The corpus callosum has _ parts. Name them. 4: rostrum, genu body, splenium
The Gyrus Rectus is located in the _ lobe and also referred to as the _ gyrus. Frontal, Straight
What structure is lateral to the gyrus rectus? The Orbital Gyri
The Olfactory Bulb and Tract are located between which gyri? The orbital and straight gyri.
The Occipitotemporal gyrus and Parahippocampal gyrus are located in which lobe (inferior view)? The Temporal Lobe
The rostral part of the parahippocampal gyrus is specifically referred to as the _. Uncus
Two structures deep in the parahippocampal gyrus which are part of the limbic system are called: Amygdala and Hippocampus
5 Basal Ganglia involved in motor integration that are deep cortical structures include: Caudate, Putamen, Globus Pallidus, Subthalamus, and Substantia Nigra
The Subthalamus is considered part of the _ Diencephalon
The Substantia Nigra is part of what structure? Midbrain
The Diencephalon consists of 4 major areas: Dorsal Thalamus, Sub Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Epithalamus
The _ _ integrates and relays sensory and motor information Dorsal Thalamus
The _ _ is responsible for motor integration Subthalamus
The _ regulates autonomic and visceral functions, synthesizes hormones... Hypothalamus
This is the major gland of the epithalamus which converts serotonin to melatonin Pineal Gland
Axonal fibers that relay information to and from the temporal lobes Anterior Commissure
Axonal fibers that are part of the visual system Posterior Commissure
axonal fibers that leave the hippocampus and project to the hypothalamus or septal areas Fornix
tissue layer that separates the 2 lateral ventricles Septum Pellucidum
The _ is also known as the pituitary stalk. Infundibulum
The 3 major areas of the brainstem are: Midbrain, Pons and Medulla Oblongata
The Cerebellum functions to monitor and coordinate _. Motor system - muscle activity
The cerebral peduncles consist of descending axons involved in _ functions. These axons are known as the _ tracts. Motor function, Corticospinal Tracts
In the anterior area of the midbrain, the cranial nerve _ has nerve fibers that project out. CN III - Oculomotor
In the posterior area of the midbrain, the cranial nerve _ has nerve fibers that project out. CN IV - Trochlear
The Superior and Inferior Colliculi are located where? In the posterior area of the midbrain.
The superior colliculi is associated with _ processing. The inferior colliculi is associated with _ processing. Visual, Auditory
The anterior area of the Pons is home to which 4 cranial nerves? CN V, VI, VII and VIII
The posterior area of the Pons is home to 3 cerebellar peduncles, named: Superior, Middle and Inferior Cerebellar Peduncles
The Anterior area of the Medulla contain which two oddly named structures? Pyramids and Olives
The pyramids contain what? Descending nerve fibers
The _ contain cell bodies of neurons in the auditory pathway. Olives
The anterior area of the Medulla is home to which 4 cranial nerves? CN IX, X, XI and XII
The posterior area of the Medulla is home to which tubercles? The Gracile tubercles and Cuneate tubercles
The _ tubercles are medial bumps which contain cell bodies that are part of the somatosensory pathway (PC/ML). Gracile Tubercles
The _ tubercles are lateral bumps which contain cell bodies that are part of the somatosensory pathway (PC/ML) Cuneate Tubercles
Describe the path of CSF through the ventricular system 2 lateral ventricles -> interventricular foramen (of Monro) -> 3rd ventricle -> cerebral aqueduct -> 4th ventricle -> lateral foramina of Luschka and medial foramen of Majendie
The _ _ creates CSF Choroid Plexus
The ventricles are lined by _ cells that convert plasma to CSF ependymal cells
meninges: the outermost layer, very thick, contains venous sinuses Dura Mater
meninges: below dura mater Arachnoid Membrane
meninges: innermost meningeal layer Pia Mater
The space between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater that contains the arachnoid projections: Subarachnoid space
The _ _ goes into the sinuses between the dura mater so the CSF can drain. Arachnoid villi
_ are where the subarachnoid space expands Cisterns
Name the 6 major cisterns: Pontine, Interpeduncular, Chiasmatic, Superior, Cerebellomedullary, Lumbar
Another name for Arachnoid Villi is: Arachnoid granulations
Name the 2 major reflections of the dura: Falx cerebri and Tentorium cerebelli
The supra and infratentorial compartments are separated by what? Tentorium cerebelli
The _ compartment is the entire _ cranial fossa. Infratentorial, Posterior
Which 2 structures are commonly involved in intracranial trauma: Uncus and Cerebellar Tonsils
The uncus can herniate into the _ and impinge on the midbrain. Tentorial Notch
A cerebellar tumor can increase intracranial pressure and force the _ into the foramen magnum, compressing this structure which contains the cardiovascular and respiratory centers and the reticular formation. Tonsils
Created by: cherubicsiren
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