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Neurology Questions

Brain Basics - Anatomy of the Brain and the Nervous System

What is the largest part of the brain and what does it do? The cerebrum is the largest part of the human brain. It is associated with higher order functioning, including the control of voluntary behaviour
Describe the Cerebrum (Physically) The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres (Left and Right). Bridging the gap is a bundle of fibres called the corpus callosum. Covering the outermost layer of the cerebrum is the cerebral cortext.
Name the main structures of the forebrain Frontal Lobe, Parietal lobe, Occipital lobe, Temporal Lobe (Including Amygdala and Hippocampus) , Basal Ganglia, Thalamus and Hypothalamus
What is the frontal lobe responsible for? Initiating and co-ordinating motor movements; higher cognitive skills, such as problem solving, thinking, planning, and organising; and for many aspects of personality and emotional makeup
What does the parietal lobe do? Involved with sensory processes, attention and language
What is the occipital lobe responsible for? Helps process visual information, including recognition of shapes and colours
What does the temporal lobe do? Helps process auditory information and puts information together from the other sensors. It is also thought to have a role in short term memory and in learned emotional responses through its amygdala
What are the basal ganglia and what do they do? Cerebral nuclei deep in the cerebral cortex. They help co-ordinate muscle movements and reward useful behaviours
What does the thalamus do? Passes most sensory information on to the cerebral cortex after helping to prioritise it.
What does the hypothalamus do? Control centre for appetites, defensive and reproductive behaviours and sleep-wakefulness
What does the midbrain consist of and what do they do? Consists of two pairs of small hills called colliculi. These collections of neurons play a big role in visual and auditory reflexes. It also has clusters of neurons that regulate activity in widespread parts of the CNS. Good for reward mechs and mood
What does the hindbrain consist of? The pon, the medulla oblongata, the spinal cord and the cerebellum
What do the pons and medulla oblongata do? Control respiration, heart rhythms, and blood glucose levels
Describe the cerebellum Has two hemispheres. They help control movement and cognitive processes that require precise timing. It also has a big role in Pavlovian learning (Learned and remembered reflexes)
What does the spinal cord do? Receives sensory information from all parts of the body below the head. It uses this information for reflexes and also relays the info to the brain. It also generates nerve impulses in nerves that control muscles and the viscera. (reflex and voluntary)
Name the parts of the Central Nervous System (CNS) The forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain and the spinal cord
What is the brain and spinal cord protected by? The brain is protected by the skull and the spinal cord is protected by the vertebral column
What does the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) consist of? Nerves and concentration of gray matter caled ganglia. It is divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system
How does the somatic nervous system work? Made up of neurons connecting the CNS with the parts of the body that interact with the outside world. The brain sends messages via the spinal cord to move the body.
How does the autonomic nervous system work? Made up of neurons connecting the CNS with internal organs. 2 parts - The sympathetic nervous system mobilises energy and resources during time of stress and arousal. The parasympathetic nervous system conserves energy and resources during relaxed states
How are messages carried throught the nervous system? neurons
Created by: TomChin
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