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IP6 S.Path Respir L1

Respiratory System L1

QuestionAnswer
What structures are in the conducting system? goes from the nasal cavity-->intrapulmonary bronchi
What is in the transitional system? bronchii (primary, secondary, tertiary), clara cells. (cuboidal epith)
What makes up the gas exchange system? alveolar ducts and alveoli
what are alveoli lined by? type 1&2 pneumonocytes
Particles larger that 2um are usually cleared how? trapped in conducting system-->moved out via mucocilliary escalator-->cough or sneeze out (IgA, M cells, BALT)
How are bacteria and viruses less than 2um cleared? they get into the gas exchange area-->phagocytosed by alveolar macs. Also surfactant, clara cells, lysozme, interferon, IgG help to clear
What cells are the 1st line of pulmonary defense against organic and inorganic particles? pulmonary Macs
In ruminants, cats,pigs and horses _____ ______ macrophages (not kupffer cells) primarily remove circulating bacteria, endotoxin and particles from blood pulmonary intravascular macs (only kuppffer cells in the dog)
These 2 cell types act as defense against injury from inhaled gasses and toxic metabolites in the blood alvolar and bronchiolar epithelial cells
congenital anomaly in dogs causing defect in MT in cilia which cause the failure of mucociliary transport? ciliary dyskinesia
what is the sequela to ciliary dyskinesia? pneumonia
What are 3 ways viral infections predispose an animmal to dz? 1. dec. mucociliary clearance 2. dec. alveolar mac function 3. immunosuppression
Name 3 bovine viruses that decrease pulmonary defense mechansims? BRSV, BVDV,PI3, IBR
What are the 5 basic responses to respiratory injury? epithelial regression, epi hyperplasia, ep metaplasia, fibrosis, neoplasia
If the conducting system is injured by virus (acute) or toxic gas, how would the epithelium respond? injury to CS->non-ciliated cells move in and multiply->differentiate into epithelial cells
If the CS was injured by a gas or virus and it was a chronic exposure what would you expect to see? gobblet cell hyperplasia, inc mucuous, dec clearance of mucus. And if very severe you could see metaplaia &/or fibrosis
What type of cells are important for repair in the transitional system (bronchioles) Clara cells
what cells are responsible for repair in the Gas Exchange system? the type 2 pneumocytes will go thru mitosis and can then either differentiate to type 1 or stay type 2
What is fetalization? hyperplasia of type 2 pneumocytes, occurs as response to GES injury
What should normal lungs look like? pink, soft, spongy, should collapse when pressure released
If a pathogen such as P. multocia entered the lungs via an AEROGENOUS route, what type of distribution would you expect to see in the lungs cranioventral
If a pathogen enters the lungs via a HEMOTOGENOUS route, what distribution would you expect to see in the lungs? multifocal, embolic pneumonia
what would cause a direct extension wound? when foreign material peirces lungs (hardware dz, plant awns, etc), lesion would be focal
_________ sporadically occurs in the nasal cavity of horses due to a deposit of _____ in nasal mucosa. Large masses can cause difficulty breathing, epistaxis and dec. performance Amyloidosis, amyloid
______ &______ are often accompanied by nasal discharge. They occur 2ndary to virus, bacteria, fungi, irritant gases, environmental change and immunosuppression, trauma, stress, and allergic rxns rhinitis and sinusitis
Created by: rccola19