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Parasit: Ticks Exam1

Flashcards about geography, hosts, etc

QuestionAnswer
tick developmental stages egg -> larva -> nymph (hard: 1 stage, soft: multiple) -> adult
adult ticks: # pairs of legs 4
nymph ticks: # pairs of legs 4
tick larvae: # pairs of legs 3
hard tick: family ixodidae
metastriata anal groove is posterior to anal opening
prostriata anal groove is anterior to anal opening; only Ixodes genus
hard tick: mouthparts anterior; attached to basis capitulum; palps are 3 segmented & may be long or short
hard tick: hypostome ventral; barbed, used for attachment
hard tick: scutum hard shield posterior to basis capitulum; in males covers entire dorsal surface; in females covers only anterior portion of idiosoma
hard tick: festoons sclerotized areas separated by grooves on dorsal, posterior aspect of some species; indistinguishable in engorged females
hard tick: # hosts 1, 2, or 3
hard tick: feeding length 4-7 day sfor immature; 10-14 days for adults
hard tick: eggs 1 batch produced; eggs laid in environment
hard tick: one-host life cycle larva, nymph, adult feed on same host; fully engorged female drops off host to deposit eggs on ground
multivoltine hard ticks, 1 host; "more than one generation per year"
hard tick: two-host larva/nymph feed on same host; adult tick feeds on separate host; not in US
univoltine hard ticks, 2 host and 3 host; "one generation per year"
hard tick: 3 host larva, nymph, adult on different hosts, usually diff't species; several days to weeks req'd to engorge at each stage; usually univoltine
Amblyomma americanum: geography TX through oklahoma, kansas, & missouri eastward
Amblyomma americanum: hosts 3-host; larva: birds, rodents; nymphs: birds, rodents, cattle, white tailed deer, cold blooded vertebrates; adults: cattle, man, horses, sheep, dogs, cats, white tailed deer
Amblyomma americanum: activity year-round active if temperatures are above 50F; adults/nymphs overwinter in ground litter
Amblyomma americanum: where do they feed? all over body; near eyes, dewlap, udder, axillary region, perineal region; no preferred feeding site on host
Amblyomma variegatum: geography africa, south america, caribbean islands (not in continental US)
Amblyomma variegatum: hosts 3 host; larva/nymph: birds; adults: cattle, other ruminants
Amblyomma cajennense: geography south texas to south america
Amblyomma cajennense: hosts prefers larger hosts but is not specific; 3 host; immature: bird, coyote, raccoon, man; adult: horse, cattle, dogs, javelina, swine, deer, sheep, goats
Amblyomma cajennense: activity year-round march to may
Amblyomma maculatum: geography gulf & atlantic coasts as far inland as kansas
Amblyomma maculatum: hosts 3 host; larvae: quail, meadow larks, grasshopper sparrows (dec-feb); nymph: birds (feb-apr), sm mammals; adult: cattle, horses, deer (aug-sept)
Amblyomma maculatum: where do they feed? on the pinna of the ear of large mammalian hosts
Amblyomma maculatum: treatment pyrethroid ear tags
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus: host 1 host; mostly cattle, but will feed on white tailed deer
Rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus: parasitic period 21 days
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus: geography formerly extant south of mason-dixon line and S california; eradicated from US; still in mexico, s/central america, middle east, west/central africa, southeastern europe
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus: where do they feed? axilla, udder/scrotum, head, neck, tail, escutcheon, anywhere else
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: host one host; normally cattle, will feed on deer; does better on alternate hosts than B. annulatus
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: parasitic period 21 days
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: geography formerly S FL, S TX; eradicated from US, still in mexico through s america, africa, SE Asia, australia
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: life cycle similar to R> annulatus, but less cold tolerant off host
Rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus/microplus: eradication both eradicated from US; still in mexico & acaricide resistant ticks have been produced; cattle behind quarantine line (US-Mexico border) must be dipped & inspected to leave quarantine zone
Rhipicephalus sanguineus: geography urban tick in N America; introduced into US in early 20th century
Rhipicephalus sanguineus: host 3 host; all stages feed almost exclusively on dogs in N america; in africa feeds on cattle & other hosts
Rhipicephalus sanguineus: generations/yr multivoltine
Rhipicephalus decoloratus: geography continental africa, S of Sahara, India, Yemen
Rhipicephalus decoloratus: host sheep, cattle, coats, horses, rarely humans, antelopes
Rhipicephalus appendiculatus: geography E & Central africa
Dermacentor albipictus: geography much of US, canada, and N mexico; dimorphism between TX & northern areas; west of Balcones escarpment from NE to SW (Interstate 35) in TX
Dermacentor albipictus: host one host; deer, cattle, horses
Dermacentor albipictus: activity year-round active october to march; peak in november/december
Dermacentor albipictus: where does it feed? axillary regions, escutcheon, flanks, dewlap
Dermacentor andersoni: geography rocky mountain area, great basin, black hills
Dermacentor andersoni: host 3 host; immatures: small mammals; adults: deer, cattle, horses, man
Dermacentor andersoni: activity year-round most active in spring
Dermacentor variablis: geography eastern 2/3 of US (incl TX), as well as washington, oregon, california
Dermacentor variablis: host 3 host; immature: small mammals; adults: dogs, bobcats, ocelots, man, immature large mammals
Dermacentor occidentalis: host 3 host; adults are only stage that normally feeds on horses/cattle
Dermacentor occidentalis: geography along pacific coast of CA & Oregon
Dermacentor (Anocentor) nitens: geography south & central america; lower rio grande valley in TX, southern FL
Dermacentor (Anocentor) nitens: host 1 host; horses; will occasionally feed on cattle, sheep, goats, deer
Dermacentor (Anocentor) nitens: parasitic life 26 day / rapid buildup of population
Dermacentor (anocentor) nitens: where does it attach? ear tick; will feed uner mane, tail
Ixodes: distinguishing feature anal groove in front of anus and extends to anterior like an arch
Ixodes scapularis: geography eastern US incl eastern TX
Ixodes scapularis: host 3 host; immatures: birds, lizards, small mammals, humans; adults: deer, cattle, sheep, horses
Ixodes scapularis: life cycle takes 2 years to complete
Ixodes scapularis: where does it attach? body
Ixodes scapularis: activity year-round active winter & spring; active in cooler weather
Ixodes pacificus: geography pacific coast
Haemaphysalis leporispalustrus: host 3 host; immatures: small rodents, birds; adults: usually rabbits, occasionally cats
Haemaphysalis leporispalustrus: where does it attach? around the eyes & ears
soft ticks: feeding habits intermittent feeds; many can live for years without feeding; leave host after each feeding (except Otobius megnini); spends only a few minutes to several hours on the host
soft ticks: life cycle numerous nymphal stages; several molts following successive blood meals; multiple molts w/in a stage; adults feed numerous times w/o molting; femal needs blood meal before laying each egg batch
Otobius megnini: geography southwestern US
Otobius megnini: host aberrant one-host tick; cattle, horses, dogs, cats, sheep, etc
Otobius megnini: where does it attach? only tick species found deep in ear canal
Otobius megnini: life cycle only larval/nymph stages are parasitic; 2nd stage nymph detaches & molts on ground; adults do not feed, mate off host
Argas persicus: host chickens & other poultry, occasionally feed on other hosts
Argas persicus: feeding habits feed at night, usually only a few at a time
Argas persicus: treatment necessary to treat nest & bedding areas; not birds
Ornithodorus spp: geography western US, incl TX
Ornithodorus spp: host live off hosts in soil & sheltered areas (rodent burrows, caves, wood piles, under houses, barns); bats, birds, rodents, humans, pets, livestock
Created by: shelbell8389