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RESPIRATORY

QuestionAnswer
PNEUMOTHORAX FREE AIR IN THE THORACIC CAVITY
ATEECTASIS COLLAPSED LUNGS
PLEURITIS(PLEURISY) INFLAMMATION OF THE PLEURAL MEMBRANES
PNEUMONIA INFLAMMATION OF THE LUNGS CAUSED PRIMARILY BY BACTERIA, VIRUSES, OR CHEMICAL IRRITANTS
EUPNEA NORMAL, QUIET IRRITANTS
DYSPNEA DIFFICULT BREATHING
APNEA NO BREATHING
TYPES OF RESPIRATION EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL
EXTERNAL RESPIRATION OCCURS IN THE LUNGS, EXCHANGE OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE BETWEEN THE AIR INHALED INTO THE LUNGS AND THE BLOOD FLOWING THROUGH THE PULMONARY (LUNG) CAPILLARIES
INTERNAL RESPIRATION OCCURS ALL OVER THE BODY. IT IS THE EXCHANGE OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE BETWEEN THE BLOOD AND THE CAPILLARIES ALL OVER THE BODY (THE SYSTEMIC CAPILLARIES) AN ALL OF THE CELLS AND TISSUES OF THE BODY
UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT NOSTRILS, NASAL PASSAGES, PHARYNX, LARYNX, TRACHEA
LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT BRONCHI, BRONCHIOLES, ALVEOLAR DUCTS, ALVEOLI
NASAL CAVITIES THE FIRST STRUCTURE IN THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM IS THE NOSTRILS OR NARES (EXTERNAL OPENING)
THE NASAL CAVITIES ARE LINED WITH A MUCUS MEMBRANE
THE NASAL CAVITIES HOUSE THE TURBINATE BONES
THE NASAL CAVITIES AIR IS WARMED BY CAPILLARIES, MOISTENED AND FILTERED
PHARYNX THE COMMON PASSAGEWAY FOR BOTH THE RESPIRATORY AND DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS
ROSTRAL PORTION OF THE PHARYNX IS DIVIDED BY THE SOFT PALATE INTO A DORSAL NASOPHARYNX AND VENTRAL OROPHARYNX
CAUDAL PORTION OF PHARYNX OPENS DORSALLY INTO THE ESOPHAGUS (DIGESTIVE PASSAGEWAY) AND VENTERALLY INTO THE LARYNX (RESPIRATORY PASSAGEWAY)
LARYNX CONNECTS THE PHARYNX (THROAT) WITH THE TRACHEA
GLOTTIS THE OPENING INTO THE LARYNX
LARYNX CONSISTS OF CARTILAGE (THYROID, CRICOID, ARYTENOIDS, EPIGLOTTIS
EPIGLOTTIS COVERS THE GLOTTIS DURING SWALLOWING
VOCAL CORDS ATTACH TO THE ARYTENOID CARTILAGE
TRACHEA CONSISTS OF NONCOLLAPSIBLE "C" SHAPED CARTILAGINOUS RINGS
TRACHEA LINED WITH CILLIATED COLUMNAR CELLS
DIVIDED INTO BRONCHI AT THE TRACHEAL BIFURCATION TRACHEA
BRONCHI RIGHT AND LEFT CARTILAGINOUS BRONCHI ENTER THE LUNGS
BRONCHI PASSAGEWAYS BECOME PROGRESSIVELY SMALLER AND THE AMOUNT OF CARTILAGE DIMINISHES
BRONCHIOLES CONSISTS OF SMOOTH MUSCLE, NO CARTILAGE; LEAD TO THE ALVEOLI
LUNGS VARYING NUMBER OF LOBES DEPENDING ON SPECIES, COVERED WITH VISCERAL PLEURA,
LUNGS HOUSE MICROSCOPIC AIR SACS KNOWN AS ALVEOLI, WHERE OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE TAKE PLACE.
VENTILATION THE MOVEMENT OF AIR BETWEEN THE ATMOSPHERE AND THE LUNGS
EXTERNAL RESPIRATION EXCHANGE OF GASES BETWEEN THE ALVEOLI AND THE BLOOD
INTERNAL RESPIRATION EXCHANGE OF GASES BETWEEN THE BLOOD AND THE CELLS
INSPIRATION A NERVOUS IMPULSE FROM THE BRAIN CAUSES THE DIAPHRAGM AND EXTERNAL INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES TO CONTRACT
INSPIRATION DIAPHRAGM MOVE CAUDALLY AND THE CHEST MOVES VENTRALLY; THEREFORE THE SIZE OF THE THORACIC CAVITY IS INCREASED, WHICH DECREASES INTRATHORACIC PRESSURE AND INTRAALVEOLAR PRESSURE
BECAUSE THE INTRAALVEOLAR PRESSURE IS NOW LESS THAN ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE, AIR MOVES INTO THE LUNGS INSPIRATION
EXPIRATION DIAPHRAGM AND EXTERNAL INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES RELAX; DIAPHRAGM MOVES CRANIALLY AND THE CHEST MOVES DORSALLY; THIS DECREASES THE SIZE OF THE THORACIC CAVITY, WHICH NCREASES INTRATHORACIC PRESSURE AND INTRAAVEOLAR PRESSURE
BECAUSE INTRAALVEOLAR PRESSURE IS NOW GREATER THAN ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE, AIR MOVES OUT OF THE LUNGS. EXPIRATION
TIDAL VOLUME THE VOLUME OF AIR EXCHANGED DURING NORMAL BREATHING
INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME THE AMOUNT OF AIR INSPIRED OVER THE TIDAL VOLUME
EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME THE AMOUNT OF AIR EXPIRED OVER THE TIDAL VOLUME
DEAD SPACE AIR IN THE PATHWAYS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
CONTROL OF RESPIRATION MEDULLARY RHYTHMICITY CENTER IN THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA, A REGION THAT HAS INSPIRATORY AND EXPIRATORY NEURONS, APNEUSTIC AREA IN THE PONS, WHICH PROLONGS INSPIRATION; PNEUMOTAXIC AREA IN THE PONS, WHICH INHIBITS THE APNEUSTIC AREA AND CAUSES EXPIRATION
HERING-BREUER REFLEX STRETCH RECEPTORS IN THE LUNGS THAT PREVENT THE LUNGS FROM OVER INFLATING
CARBON DIOXIDE AN INCREASE IN CARBON DIOXIDE CAUSES AN INCREASE IN THE RESPIRATORY RATE
OTHER FACTORS MAY AFFECT THE RATE OF RESPIRATION PAIN,COLD, BLOOD PRESSURE, PH, OXYGEN, STRESS.
Created by: JODY84