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The Body As a Whole

Mblex Study Guide

The study of the structure of the body and the relationship of it's parts. Anatomy
The study of the processes and functions of the body that support life. Physiology
A division of Anatomy: Study of the body divided into systems that contribute to the same function Systemic Anatomy
A division of Anatomy: Study of structures of a particular area Regional Anatomy
Div. of Anatomy: Study of body structures large enough to be visible to the naked eye. Gross Anatomy
Div. of Anatomy: Study of how anatomy changes over the life cycle. Developmental Anatomy
Div. of Anatomy: Study of internal organs and structures as they are recognized from and related to the overly skin surface. Surface Anatomy
Field of Phys: Study of the body organization Organizational Physiology
Field of Phys: Study of Disease Pathophysiology
Field of Phy: Study of the Body Systems Systemic Physiology
Keeping the internal environment distinct from the external environment Maintenance of Boundaries
A characteristic of life: The ability to transport the entire being, as well as internal components throughout the body Movement
The ability to sense, monitor, and respond to changes in the external environment. Responsiveness
The movement of energy from one point to another. Conductivity
A normal increase in the size and/or number of cells. Growth
The absorption, transport, and use or exchange of respiratory gasses (oxygen & CO2) Respiration
The process by which food products are broken down into simple substances to be used by individual cells. Digestion
The transport and use of nutrients Absorption
The production and delivery of specialized substances for diverse functions. Secretion
The removal of waste products Excretion
The movement of fluids, nutrients, secretions, and waste products from one area of the body to another Circulation
The formation of a new being; also the formation of new cells in the body to permit growth, repair, and replacement Reproduction
A chemical reaction that occurs in cells to effect transformation, production, or consumption of energy Metabolism
A small particle of an element Atom
A smaller particle inside an atom that carries a positive charge Proton
A smaller particle inside an atom that carries a negative charge Electron
A smaller particle inside an atom that contains a neutral charge Neutron
Substances composed of a single type of atom Element
Substances made up of different types of atoms Compounds
A type of of Chemical Bond where an atom can gain or lose electrons to fill it's outer shell which in turn makes the atom no longer electrically neutral. The ratio of protons and electrons are no longer equal Ionic Bond
A type of chemical bond when two or more atoms share electrons Covalent Bond
A type of chemical bond where molecules become electrically neutral because they share the same number of protons and electrons. Polar-Covalent Bond
The smallest particle of a substance that can exist independently without losing the physical and chemical properties of that substance. Molecule
Chemical structures that do not have carbon or hydrogen atoms Inorganic Compounds
Chemical structures that do have carbon and hydrogen atoms Organic Compounds
The capacity to work Energy
Chemical reaction that uses energy as it joins simple molecules to form more complex molecules of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Anabolism
A compound that stores energy in the muscles and when broken down during catabolic reactions releases energy Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Chemical reactions that release energy as they break down complex compounds Catabolism
Covalent bonds created in specific organic substrates in the presences of enzymes. Can be found in ATP. High-Energy Bonds
Molecules synthesized or broken down inside the body by chemical reactions Metabolites
Essential elements and molecules that are obtained from the diet and that are required by the body for normal body function Nutrients
Sugars, starches and cellulose composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates
Organic compounds that have carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms but in s different proportion than that of carbohydrates. Lipids
Substances formed from amino acids. Proteins
Substance that is the major component of ova and sperm and conveys information about the genetic cycle. (DNA & RNA) Nucleic Acids
The basic components of a cell that perform specific functions within a cell. Organelles
The outer boundary of the cell. Cell Membrane
Cell membrane made up of lipids, carbs, and proteins. Phospholipid Bi-layer
Not allowing substances to pass through the cell membrane . Impermeable
Transport of substances across the cell membrane without the use of energy. Passive Transport
A type of passive transport: the movement of ions and molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration Diffusion
A form of passive transport: The diffusion of water from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher solution concentration across a semipermeable membrane. Osmosis
A type of passive transport: When hydrostatic pressure forces water across a semipermeable membrane Filtration
A type of passive transport: When integral proteins bind to specific ions or other substances such as glucose and amino acids and carry them across the cell membrane into the cell. Carrier-mediated Transport
A type of passive transport: Small membrane lined sacs form as the cell membrane folds to form vesicles that surround a substance and move it into or out of the cell. Vesicular Transport
Bringing substances into the cell by forming vescicles. Endocytosis
Transporting substances out of the cell Exocytosis
The transport of substances into or out of cell using energy. Active Transport
Carriers that transport substances into or out of a cell using energy. Ion Pumps
The material enclosed by the cell membrane which contains the nucleus and organelles. Cytoplasm
The fluid portion of the cytoplasm Cytosol or Intracellular Fluid
The internal scaffolding that anchors the organelles and allows the cells to move and to maintain or change their shape. Cytoskeleton
A network of interconnected tubes, flattened sacs, and channels distributed throughout the cytoplasm. Endoplasmic Reticulum
Reticulum found in cells in which large amounts of proteins are made Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Reticulum involved in the metabolism of lipids (fats); and also assists in eliminating toxicity caused by drugs and in deactivating steroids. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Processes and packages proteins some carbs for distribution to other parts of the cell for secretion from the cell. Golgi Apparatus
Contains enzymes that function as the digestive system of the cell. Lysosomes
Small fingerlike projections of the cell membrane that serve to increase the surface area. Found in cells that are involved in absorbing substances from the extracellular fluid. Microvilli
Controls the daily activities of the cell and all cellular production. Nucleus
Organelle that helps detoxify the cell of substances such as alcohol and hydrogen peroxide. Peroxisomes
Organelle which is the site where amino acids are combined to create various proteins Ribosomes
The basic structural unit of an organism. Cell
The period during which a cell grows and carries on it's activities Interphase
Cell division in which the cell duplicates it's DNA and divides into two identical daughter cells. Mitosis
A form of mitosis that halves the number of chromosomes in reproductive cells before they combine and multiply Meiosis
A decrease in the size of a body part or organ caused by a decrease in the size of the cells. Atrophy
An increase in the size of a cell which results in an increase in the size of a body part or organ. Hypertrophy
A group of similar cells that are specialized to perform a specific function. Tissue
The basic substance between the cells of a tissue. Matrix
The four principle types of tissue Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, and Nervous
A type of tissue that covers and protects the surface of the body and it's parts. It lines cavities, forms glands, and specializes in moving substances into and out of the blood during secretion, absorption and excretion. Epithelial Tissue
The surface of epithelial tissue that is not in contact with other tissues but is exposed to the external or internal environment. Apical Surface
The surface of epithelial tissue that faces the inside of the body. Basal Surface
A permeable membrane that attaches epithelial tissues to the underlying connective tissues. Basement Membrane
A thin, sheetlike layer of tissue that covers a cell, an organ, or a structure, that lines tubes or cavities, or that divides and separates one part from another Membrane
A type of membrane that covers the surface of the body and is exposed to the external environment. Cutaneous Membrane
A type of membrane that lines body cavities, not open to the external environment and covers many of the organs. Secretes a thin watery fluid that lubricates organs so as to reduce friction. Serous Membranes
A type of membrane found on the surface of tubes and that open directly to the exterior, such as those lining the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts. Mucous Membranes
The most abundant tissue in the body that is specialized to support and hold together the body and it's parts, to transport substances through the body and to protect the body from foreign substances. Connective Tissue
Type of fibers found in Connective tissue that are tough, strong and have minimal stretch capability. Also have a high degree of tensile strength which allows them to withstand longitudinal stress. Also referred to as white fibers. Collagenous Fibers
A protein substance composed of small fibirls that combine to create the connective tissue, fasicae, tendons, and ligaments. When combined with water it forms gelatin. Collagen
Type of fibers found in connective tissue that are delicate fibers found in networks and support small structures such as capillaries, nerve fibers, and the basement membrane. Reticular Fibers
Fibers found in connective tissue that are extensible and elastic. Because of their color they are also called yellow fibers. Elastic Fibers
The process of endocytosis followed by digestion of the vesicles contents by enzymes present in the cytoplams Phagocytosis
Type of connective tissue that consists mainly of parallel collagen fibers produced by fibroblasts. The ligaments & tendons formed by this type of tissue have a small number of cells & blood flow to the area is limited. Strenth & resistance w some stretch Dense Regular Connective Tissue
Type of Conn. Tissue made of collagen & elastin fibers, irregular pattern, little blood flow, concentrated in the dermis, join capsules, surrounding muscles & some organs. Can withstand intense pulling and resists impacts Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
Type of Conn. Tissue: loose, irregular configuration of fibroblastic cells, macrophages & lymphocytes. Fluid filled spaces separate the cells and fibers from one another. Packing material between glands, muscles & nerves, attaches to the skin. Loose (Areolar) tissue
Type of Conn Tissue: composed of fat cells w little matrix between cells. A source of fuel & helps to insulate & pad organs & tissues. Adipose Tissue
A type of cartilage which is semitransparent & has a milky blue color, strong solid matrix, flexible & insensitive. Found in the end of bones & in most synovial joints where it provides weight bearing support. Hyaline Cartilage
A type of cartilage composed of lg. amts. of dense fibrous tissue & small amts. of matrix. Found mainly in the symphisis pubis, intervertebral disks & tendon attachments. Can withstand compression and impact forces. Fibrocartilage
Type of cartilage, flexible hyaline cartilage w large concentration of elastic fibers. Provides flexibility and support to the external ear and larynx. Elastic Cartilage
Type of connective tissue, is the most rigid of connective tissue because of it's hard mineralized matrix. Provides the framework for the body, protects the internal organs, serves for storage of minerals and produces blood cells Bone
Type of Connective tissue that floats within an extremely loose matrix (plasma). Helps transport substances, resists infection and maintains heat. Blood
Type of Connective Tissue membrane that lines the joint spaces in the mobile synovial joints. Also found in the bursae. Synovial Joints
Protective sacs found near joints, between layers of muscle and connective tissue; and wherever the body needs extra protection. Bursae
A type of tissue that provides movement by shortening through contraction. Muscle tissue
Type of muscle tissue which are large cross-striated cells connected to the skeleton. They are controlled by the nervous system and their actions are voluntary. Skeletal Muscle Fibers
Type of muscle tissue which are found in the heart, are smaller striated fibers. Cardiac Muscle Fibers
Type of muscle tissue that is neither striated nor voluntary. Found in the organs and the viscera, help regulate blood flow through the cardio system, move substances such as food and waste through the intestines, and squeezes secretions from glands Smooth Muscle Fibers
Type of Tissue that coordinates and regulates body activity. Nervous Tissue
Groups of two or more kinds of tissues that combine to perform a specific function. Organs
Organs that combine to perform more complex body functions Systems
The regulation of functions that maintain a healthy balance in the body. Homestasis
What are the seven levels of organization of the body? Chemical, Organelle, Cellular, Tissue, Organ, System, Organism
Created by: CEckhoff
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