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Eye Anatomy

Uvea middle vascular layer (one of the three main layers)
acuity accuracy, sharp perception
Define Adnexa accessory structure
Adnexa of the eye eyelids, eyelashes, nictitating membrane, conjunctiva
proptosis forward projection/displacement of the eyeball
strabismus cross eyed
nystagmus involuntary rapid movement of the eyeballs
anisocoria inequality in the size of the pupils of the eyes
enucleation removal of an organ or other mass intact, as of the eyeball from the orbit
cataract a clouding of the lens of the eye, or its surrounding transparent membrane that obstructs the passage of light
buphthalmos enlargement of the eye
blepharitis inflammation of the eyelid
nictitating membrane third eyelid
OS left eye
OD right eye
OU both eyes
Outer fibrous layer sclera (white part) cornea (protrusion at front of eye)
Middle Vascular layer (Uvea) choroid iris ciliary body
Inner nervous layer retina optic disc macula
What is the sclera and what is its purpose White part of the eye that accounts for 3/4 of the fibrous layer helps maintain the shape of the eye
what is the choroid and what is its purpose vascular membrane that contains blood vessels supplies almost all of the blood to the eye
What is the difference between the ciliary body and the lens? the ciliary body is an extension of the choroid and is composed of muscles. the ciliary body adjusts the shape and thickness of the lens
What is the retina? What is its purpose? The retina is the posterior (back) segment of the eye Receives images and sends signal to brain regarding the image, contains photoreceptor cells (cones, rods)
What are photoreceptor cells? What ones do animals have? What do they react to? Neurons, sensory receptors for light: Cones and Rods Cones and Rods Cones and Rods, react to light
What is the anterior segment composed of? Anterior chamber (located between caudal surface of cornea and cranial surface of iris) Posterior Chamber (located between caudal surface of iris and cranial surface of lens)
What is the posterior segment composed of? vitreous humor (jelly like mass)
Are dogs color blind? \no. Dogs seemingly can see color to some extent. They have a lot of rods (light reaction) but very few cones (color/fine detail) so the color may appear to be washed out, faded
When doing an exam ,what intraocular structures should we look at? retina, fundus, lens, optic nerve, macula, anterior chamber
When doing an exam, what extraocular structures should we look at? cornea, iris, sclera, eyelashes, eyelid, conjunctiva, nictitating membrane, skin/fur
What are some physical abnormalities we might note? Strabismus- abnormal eye position inflamed conjunctiva red sclera tear production pawing at the eye squinting
What are three tests to assess vision? 1. Tracking: take object move infront of animal to see if they follow/track it 2. Maze- put animal in unfamiliar en., create a maze (in full, low, dim light) 3. Menace- cover one eye, make menacing motion toward other, expect pull back or blink
What is a subconjunctival injection? injection under the conjuctiva to medicate the anterior uveal tract
At what position should we instill drops or ointment? 12:00 position
How long should you wait to adminster a second eye medication at least a minute
What is IOP and how can we measure it? Intraocular pressure Shiotz's tonometry/digital tonopen (measures how much pressure is on the inside of the eye)
What is conjunctivitis inflammation of the conjuntiva
What is hyperemia? redness
what is chemosis? swelling?
Is conjuntivitis in cats more likely to be infectious or non-infectious? infectious conjuntivitis
What is epiphora result of overproduction of tears or faulty drainage by lacrimal ducts
what can we do to test the patency of nasolacrimal ducts (whether they are open) flushing of nasolacrimal ducts
What commonly causes epiphora? blockage of the lacrimal duct by swelling or inflammatory cells
What is blepharitis? inflammation of the eyelid
What is the difference btween eylid tumors in dogs vs. cats? dogs- most eyelid tumors are benign cats- most eyelid tumors are malignant
What are some signs of entropion? rolling inward of the lid margins, pain, presence of ulcer on cornea, redness
ectropian? lid eversion, conjunctivitis, drainage from the eye
describe cherry eye and the treatment for it prolapse of the third eyelid gland surgery is the only treatment
what is keraconjunctivitis sicca? loss of treat production from the lacrimal gland of the eye
What are some causes of KCS? viral infections, drug-related toxicties, immune mediated diseases, inflammation, breed disposition, congental abnormalities
How do we diagnose KCS? Perform a Schirmer tear test (normal test is 13-25mm/min)
What are 2 common treatments for KCS? Tear stimulation with cyclosporine Topical artificial tear ointments/drops to help keep eye lubricated
What is the definition of Glaucoma? If more aqueous fluid produced than leaves the eye
What is the difference between primary and secondary glaucoma? Primary is congenital and secondary is an obstruction of the drainage angle (neoplasm, ureitis, lens luxation [lens slips out of place])
How do we test for Glaucoma? measure IOP (schiotz tonometer, digital tonopen) Gonioscopy (exam iridocorneal)
How quick can vision be lost, if glaucoma is not treated? 4 hours
What are a few options to treat glaucoma? Drugs to reduce pressure oral medications to reduce amount of aqueous humor eye drops to help increase drainage of fluid form the eye eye enucleation
What are some causes of corneal ulcers? trauma, chemicals, foreign objects, eye diseases (entropion)
How do we diagnose corneal ulcers? fluorescein dye applied to cornea perform complete eye exam
what do we never wnat to use in the eye if there is an ulcer? Why? Medications containing steroids slow the healing process
What makes of the uvea? What is anterior uveitis? Iris, choroid, cilliary body inflammation of the uvea
What is the treatment for retinal atrophy there is not treatment
What is the difference between senile nuclear sclerosis and cataracts? In senile nuclear sclerosis the lens becomes more compact with fibers. The lens is still clear and the animal can see through it. In cataracts the capsule that encloses the eye is disrupted. The animal will not be able to see through it.
What is the treatment for nuclear sclerosis There is no treatment for nuclear sclerosis
What is the treatment for cataracts? surgical removal of cataract no treatment if cataract is small, uncomplicated
What is progressive retinal atrophy? decrease in size of normally developed retina
In a Shiotz's tonometry test, the lower the reading on the tonometer scale, the ______ the intraocular pressure higher
What are normal results of shiotzs tonometry for a cast and dogs? 25-15 mm/Hg
what are normal results of a schirmer tear tests for cats and dogs? 13-25 mm/min
What is the purpose of the flushing to nasolacrimal ducts? -determine patency -relieve minor obstruction of nasolacrimal duct
What is the purpose of staining the cornea? -determine presence, location, and severity of corneal ulcers -demonstrate patency of nasolacrimal duct
what is the 2nd layer of the cornea called? stroma
What are the two causes of infectious conjunctivitis? Feline Herpes Virus (FHV) Calicivirus
What are some causes of non-infectious conjunctivitis? -immuned mediated -allergy induced -anatomic conjuntivitis (ectropian, entropion) - eye injury - bacterial & viral conjunctivitis
What is epiphora? the redult of the over production of tears or faulty drainage by lacrimal ducts due to a blockage or trauma
What is the difference between epiphora and KCS? epiphora is the over production of tears and KCS is the loss of tear production
Failure to treat KCS results in what? blindness
Define Entropion. Is this more common in dogs or cats? Eyelid rolls in against the cornea. -dogs
Define Ectropion. The eyelid is excessive and droops outward.
If more aqueous fluid is produced than ____ the eye, glaucoma results leaves
When testing for glaucoma, should you dilate the pupil? No
Cones are associated with what? color and fine detail
Rods are associated with what? react to ligth
what is another name for the optic disc? blind spot
What part of the eye do we see the best and why? Macula Has greater density of photoreceptor cells
What color will a normal retina reflect? yellow or green
Does the PLR (pupillary light response) assess vision? No, this is a neurological test
When doing a subconjunctival injection you should give no more than how much of medication at one location? Give no more than 0.25 ml at one location. If need more, use another location
Created by: 6812617



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