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Chapter 2,3 and 4


What do Organic Compounds Contain? Hydrocarbon groups and also contain a functional group
Organic Compounds create what kind of bond? They are usually covalently bonded
Examples of Organic Compounds Carbohydrates,Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids
Functions of Carbohydrates Used for energy,storage of energy and cellular structures
Contains three to seven carbon atoms in a chain or ring Monosacgcharides
Two monosaccharides joined together Disaccharides
Examples of Monosaccharides glucose chemical formula C6 H12 O6
Examples of disaccharides glucose+ frutose= surcrose
Combination of many monosaccharides Polysaccharides
Examples of Polysaccharides glycogen,starch,and cellulose
What are the 2 functions of Lipids? It is used in the body for energy and stored in fat for future energy needs
what are the 4 classes of lipids Neutral Fats, Phospholipids,Steriods and Eicosanoids
What are neutral fats called? Triglycerides
What do neutral fats contain three fatty acids and a glycerol molecule
What molecule is a modified three-carbon simple sugar glycerol
A chain of carbon atoms with one or two hydrogen atoms attached to each carbon by single or double bonds Fatty Acid
A fatty acid when all the bonds in the hydrocarbon chain are single bonds and as many hydrognen atoms as possible are attached to a carbon Saturated
A fatty acid when there are some double bonds between the carbon and hydrogen atoms Unsaturated
what contains 2 fatty acids attached to glycerol extending in one direction phospholipids
Phosphate group (PO4) attached to a nitrogen containing compound extending in the other direction phospholipids
Is the phosphate group hydrophilic or hydrophobic hydrophilic and polar
Is the fatty acid side hydrophilic or hydrophobic hydrophobic and nonpolar
Lipids that take the form of four interlocking hydrocarbon rings steriods
Are Steriods hydrophobic or hydrophilic hydrophobic and nonpolar
Lipids formed by a 20 carbon fatty acid and a ring structure eicosanoids
What eiocosandoid mediates inflamation prostaglandins
What eiocosandoid mediates platelet function thromboxane
what eiocosandiod mediate broncho construction leukotrienes
the most abundant organic molecules in the body Proteins
what are the 7 functions of proteins it is used for cell structure and structural body tissues,controlling chemical reactions,regulates growth,transports molecules,defends the body against invaders,and catalyzes all reactions occuring in the body
how many amino acids are used in the body 20
what are proteins composed of C,O,H,N
contains a central carbon atom attached to a hydrogen atom an amino groulp a carboxyl group and a side chain Amino acids
What group defines each amino acid The R group
the specific combination of amino acids is determined by the cells what DNA
when two amino acids are linked together dehydration synthesis
the carboxyl group of one amino acid links with the amino group of another amino acid peptide bond
A chain of ten or more amino acids linked together polypeptide
the sequence and number of amino acids that link together to form the peptide chain primary structure
the natural bend of parts of the peptide chain as it is formed in three dimensions secondary structure
the most common shapes that chains amino acids alpha helix and beta-pleated sheet
the overall shape of a single protein molecule tertiary structure
two or more protein chains join to form a complex macromolecule quaternary structure
stable, rigid,water-insoluble proteins that are used for adding strength to tissues or cells structural proteins
water soluble,flexible,three dimensional shape that can change under diffrent circumstances functional proteins
proteins that act as catalysts to speed up a chemical reaction without themselves being altered or destroyed enzymes
specific to the reaction they catalyze enzymes
the substances that enzymes act upon substrates
often take place in a series of reactions with the products of one reaction acting as the substrate for the next reaction enzymes reaction
the largest molecules in the body nucleic acids
what is composed of C,O,H,N and P nucleic acids
exists mainly in the nucleus and is the molecule that contains all the instructions needed by the cell to build protein DNA
transfers instructions out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm of the cell,and builds proteins RNA
building blocks of nucleic acids nucleotides
what are the 5 nucleotides adenine,guanine,cytosine,uracil and thymine
What nucleotides occur in both DNA and RNA adenine,guanine,and cytosine
what nucleotide only occurs in DNA thymine
what nucleotide occurs only in RNA Uracil
a sequence of nucleotides that carries the information to make one peptide chain gene
a grouping of three nucleotides is the code for a specific what amino acid
is constructed of two parallel strands of the nucleotides A,G,C,and T DNA
the strands are connected by hydrogen bonds between the nitrongenous bases DNA
adenine can only bond with thymine and guanine can bond only with cytosine DNA
the two strands of nucleic acid twist around each other in a spiral double helix
consists of a single strand of the nucleotides A,G,C,and U RNA
What are the three types of RNA transfer,messenger,ribosomal RNA
the energy needed by the body is stored in the phospbate bonds ATP
A nucleotide containing adenine with two additional phosphate groups attached ATP is a RNA nucleotide
Created by: Jennylee92