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vet 1400~

2nd half for final

QuestionAnswer
this is the volume of blood pumped each min cardiac function
this is an intrinsic factor if the SA node in the heart and it is modified by autonomic, humoral, and local factors heart rate
these will increase contractility and therefore increase cardiac out put positive inotropic
these will decrease contractility and cardiac output, and increase right atrial pressure negative inotropic
these help prevent seizures by suppressing the spread of abnormal electric impulses from the seizure focus to other areas of the brain; side effects include CNS depression, ataxia, hepatotoxicity anticonvulsants
this is the most commonly used med to prevent seizures, tolerance can develop, available as tabs or injectable(slow iv only) C-IV controlled drug phenobarbital
this is the precursor to phenobarbital pimodone
adjunct anticonvulsant, crystalline powder than must be compounded, long half-life, use in cats is controversial- may cause pulmonary fibrosis potassium bromide
used iv to treat status epilepticus, can be combined with ketamine and used as an induction agent, appetite stimulant, C-IV drug, injectable sticks to plastic, iv only, causes sedation, poss liver failure in cats when used orally, benzodiazepine tranquili diazepam
reduce anxiety, cause sedation, lowers seizure threshold, may lower blood pressure, penile prolapse in stallions and recently gelded stallions, sight house highly sensitive, available in tabs or injectable acepromazine (phenothiazine tranqulizers)
same as diazepam but can be given IM and is available as injectable only, benzodiazepine tranquilizers midazolam
works best when used in combo with an opiod, has some analgesic effects, reverse by atipamezole, injectable only (iv or im in epaxial muscles) alpha 2- agonists dexmedetomidine (aka medetomidine)
analgesia variable, causes vomiting, used extensively in equine, alpha-2 agonists xylazine
cause muscle ridgidity, can cause apnea when 1st administered, mild analgesia unless used as cri, used for restraint, diagnostic procedures, minor surgical procedures, typically used in combo w/ other drugs, C-III drug, injectable only (IV or IM)dissociat ketamine
combination product also containing zolazepam, C-III drug, dissociative agent tiletamine (telazol)
causes potent cardiovascular and respiratory depression, sight hounds are highly sensitive, C-III drug, IV injectable only, causes tissue necrosis if given perivascularly, barbiturate thiopental
anticonvulsant(65mg/ml), status epilepticus refractory to diazepam, euthanasia solutions (260-390mg/ml), a C-II drug when pentobarbital is only agent (sleep away) a C-III drug when pentobarbital is combined with other agents (beuthanasia) barbituates pentobarbital
skeletal muscle relaxant, used in combo with another anesthetic drug to induce general anesthesia in horses(cri) miscellaneous drug guaifenesin
older halogenated hydrocarbon agent, prolonged response to rate adjustment halothane
rapid induction of anesthesia w/ short recoveris, vigilant monitoring is needed bc the animal can change anesthetic planes quickly, irritates the respiratory system, halogenated hydrocarbon isoflurane
very similar to isoflurane, faster response to rate changes?, have fewer cardiovascular side effects than other inhalants, halogenated hydrocarbons sevoflurane
block alpha 2 receptors, used to reverse alpha 2 agonists, ex; yohimbine & antipamezole, neurological stimulants sympatholytics
block the binding of opioids to their receptors, used to treat respiratory and CNS depression from opioid overdose, ex; naloxone & naltrexone, neurological stimulants Mu antagonists
used as a local anesthetic, immediate onset, short acting (1-2 hours) injectable, topical, transdermal lidocaine
used as local anesthetic, longer onset time than lidocaine, longer acting (3-5 hours) injectable only bupivacaine
used for local anesthetics, ophthalmic preparations proparacaine and tetracaine
GABA agonists, produce sedation & relieve anxiety, used for aggression, urine spraying, noise phobias, ex; diazepam, lorazepam (ativan) alprazolam (xanax) anti-anxiety drugs benzodiazepines
dopamine antagonists, treat aggression? car ride anxiety, side effects; sedation, hypotension, ex: acepromazine anti-anxiety drug phenothiazines
work by blocking serotonin, used for urine spraying, anxiety- associated aggression, side effects: dont cause sedation, boost confidence, ex: buspirone, anti-anxiety drug azapirones
interfere with reuptake of neurotransmitter by presynaptic nerve, used for separation anxiety, pruritic conditions, compulsive disorders, side effects: anticholinergic effects, liver problems, thyroid effects, ex: amitryptaline, clomipramine, antidepressa tricyclics
reduce destruction of dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, uses: codnitive dysfunction, side effects: hypotension, drowsiness, anticholinergic effects, drug interactions, ex: selegiline, antidepressant monoamine oxidase inhibators (MAOIs)
inhibiting serotonin reuptake, used to treat depression, aggression, anxiety, phobias, compulsive disorders, few side effects, ex: fluoxetine (prozac, reconcile) sertraline (zoloft) paroxetine (paxil) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
calming effects, suppression of the excitatory effect of glutamine, supress male like behaviors, side effects: mammary gland & endometrial hyperplasia, bone marrow suppression, endocrine disorders ex: diethylstilbestrol, medroxyprogestrone acetate, megest progestrins and estrogens
block enzymes that convert testosterone to dihydrostestosterone, used for benign prostatic hyperplasia, ex: finasteride testosterone inhibitors
abnormal flaking/scaling of epidermis- idiopathic, or secondary to external parasites, hormonal imbalance, allergies seborrhea
this is an otc anti-thrush in horses and ruminants copper naphthenate
this animal source of insulin is nearly identical to feline insulin beef
this animal source of insuline is closer to canine insulin pork
this is a short acting insulin that is used for initial treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis regular insulin
this is an intermediate-acting insulin that is used to manage uncomplicated cases of diabetes mellitus nph, lente, vetsulin, humulin n
this is a long acting insulin, pzi was the insulin of choice for cats but has been taken off the market pzi, ultralente, glargine (lantus
this is an oral diabetes meidcation that promotes insulin release, dosed BID, side effects; vomiting, liver toxicity, hypoglycemia glipizide
this is a oral diabetes med, given to promote insulin release, dose SID, side effects; same as for glipizide, but occur less frequently glimepiride (amaryl)
this is an oral diabeted med, inhibits glucose production by the liver, dosed bid, side effects; anorexia, vomiting(can be severe) contra indicated with kidney and liver disease glucophage
this is an oral diabetes med, impairs glucose absorption from intestines, dose bid-tid with meals, side effects; flatulence, soft stools, diarrhea, not generally effective by itself acarbose
thyroid hormone, synthetic t4, side effects are rare, must monitor blood levels levothyroxine (soloxine)
thyroid hormone, sunthetic t3, side effects rare, used for t3 suppression test for hyperthyroidism, treat hypothyroidism when levothyroxine not effective liothyronine (cytomel)
thyroid hormoen, treat hyperthyroidism, interferes with formation of t3 and t4 by blocking iodine incorporation, side effects vomiting, anorexia, neutropenia, unmasking underlying renal disease, monitor t4 levels, cbc, chem methimazole
this is the outer part of the adrenal gland that produces mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids adrenal cortex
this blocks the enzymes needed to produce steriod compounds, more side effects on the liver, not as effective for cushings treatment ketoconazole
increase tear produciton, ex; cyclosporine (optimmune) tacrolimus (currently must be compounded) lacrimongenics
cholingergic drugs that cause the pupil to constrict, treats glaucoma, kcs, ex; pilocaprine miotics
drugs that dilate the puple, useful in exams of the retine mydriatics
drugs taht paralyze the ciliary muscles, reduce pain from ciliary muscle spasm cycloplegics
Created by: chop